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MC Bio 204 ch 16

the special senses

QuestionAnswer
photoreceptors L/the inner (neural) layer of the retina
olfactory receptors L/the olfactory epithelium, in the superior part of the nasal cavity || S/bipolar neurons
gustatory receptors L/taste buds (on the tongue, and in smaller quantities in the upper palate, pharynx, and epiglottis)
astigmatism a defect in which the eye cannot create a sharp focused image on the retina; can be caused by irregular curvature of cornea or lens
cataract a clouding in the lens, leading to partial or complete loss of vision; can be caused by diabetes, hypertension, trauma, chromosomal disorders
conjunctivitis acute inflammation of the conjunctiva; generally caused by allergies, but sometimes by viral or bacterial infection
retinal detachment syndrome in which the retina detaches from its support tissue; can be caused by trauma or small tears that allow vitreous fluid to accumulate deep to the retina
conduction deafness a type of hearing loss in which there is a problem conducting sound waves within the ear; can be caused by earwax buildup, infection, ostosclerosis, et al.
sensorineural hearing loss hearing loss in which the root cause lies in the vestibulocochlear nerve or the structures of the inner ear (esp. the hair cells in the organ of Corti)
glaucoma a disease in which the optic nerve is damaged; generally associated with excessive fluid damage in the eye
aqueous humor L/the two chambers of the anterior cavity || S/filtered out of capillaries in the ciliary body; then enters the posterior chamber; flows forward between iris and lens; drains through sleral venous sinus; replaced every 90 min
fibrous tunic L/superficial layer of the eyeball || S/consists of the cornea (anterior) and sclera (posterior)
sclera the "white" of the eyeball || covers the entire eyeball, except the cornea || C/dense connective tissue
vascular tunic the middle layer of the eyeball || comprised of choroid, ciliary body, and iris
choroid posterior portion of the vascular tunic || highly vascularized; lines most of the internal surface of the sclera
perilymph L/the bony labyrinth [superficial layer of the semicircular canals] || C/chemically similar to CSF
endolymph L/membranous labyrinth [inner layer of the semicircular canals]
vitreous body L/vitreous chamber [large cavity between lens and retina] || C/a jellylike substance [unlike aqueous humor, is not constantly replaced] || F/contains phagoctyes that remove debris; holds retina in place
otitis media inflammation of the middle ear
Created by: dglenn34