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Lee Circulation

Circulatory System

leukocytes that lack granules. agranulocytes
a decrease in the number of red blood cells, for any reason. anemia
one of the two branches of the left main coronary artery. anterior descending coronary artery
proteins within plasma that react with antigens. antibodies
substances on the surface of erythrocytes that are recognized by the immune system. antigens
the largest artery in the body, which carries oxygenated blood from the left ventricle to the entire body. aorta
one of the three described portions of the aorta; the section of the aorta between the ascending and descending portions that gives rise to the right brachiocephalic (innominate), left common carotid, and left subclavian arteries. aortic arch
the semilunar valve that regulates blood flow from the left ventricle to the aorta. aortic valve
the blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart. arteries
the deposition of calcium in the arterial walls that results in a loss of elasticity and concomitant reduction in blood flow. arteriosclerosis
the first of three portions of the aorta; originates from the left ventricle and gives rise to two branches, the right and left main coronary arteries. ascending aorta
a disorder characterized by the formation of plaques of material, mostly lipids and cholesterol, on the inner arterial walls. atherosclerosis
the site located in the right atrium adjacent to the septum that is responsible for transiently slowing electrical conduction. atrioventricular (AV) node
the two valves through which blood flows from the atria to the ventricles. atrioventricular valves
one of the two chambers in the heart that receives blood back from the body. atrium
the vein that is formed from the combination of the basilic and cephalic veins; it drains into the subclavian vein. axillary vein
receptors in the blood vessels, kidneys, brain, and heart that respond to changes in pressure in the heart or main arteries to help maintain homeostasis. baroreceptors
the artery that is formed when the left and right vertebral arteries unite after entering the brain through the foramen magnum. basilar artery
one of the two major veins of the arm, it combines with the cephalic vein to form the axillary vein. basilic vein
the least common of all granulocytes; they are important in both allergic and inflammatory reactions. basophils
a waste product of red blood cell destruction that undergoes further metabolism in the liver. bilirubin
the fluid tissue that is pumped by the heart through the arteries, veins, and capillaries and consists of plasma and formed elements or cells, such as red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. blood
an abnormal "whooshing-like" sound indicating turbulent blood flow within a blood vessel. bruit
part of the conduction system of the heart; a continuation of the atrioventricular node. bundle of His
microscopic, thin-walled blood vessels through which oxygen and nutrients and carbon dioxide and waste products are exchanged. capillaries
the repetitive pumping process that begins with the onset of cardiac muscle contraction and ends just prior to the beginning of the next contraction. cardiac cycle
the amount of blood pumped through the circulatory system in 1 minute. cardiac output
a life-threatening state of shock that develops as a result of a large pericardial effusion. cardiac tamponade
the point of division at which the common carotid artery branches at the angle of the mandible into the internal and external carotid arteries. carotid bifurcation
a slight dilatation in the carotid bifurcation that contains structures that are important in the regulation of blood pressure. carotid sinus
one of the two major veins of the arm that combine to form the axillary vein. cephalic vein
arteries that arise from the aorta shortly after it leaves the left ventricle and supply the heart with oxygen and nutrients. coronary arteries
the arteries that supply blood to large portions of the cerebral cortex of the brain. cerebral arteries
receptors in the blood vessels, kidneys, brain, and heart that respond to changes in chemical composition of the blood to help maintain homeostasis. chemoreceptors
small muscular strands that attach the ventricles and the valves, preventing regurgitation of blood through the valves from the ventricles to the atria. chordae tendineae cordis
an interconnection of the anterior cerebral arteries and the anterior communicating artery, which forms an important source of collateral circulation to the brain. circle of Willis
a group of complex electrical tissues within the heart that initiate and transmit stimuli that result in contractions of myocardial tissue. conduction system
the ability of cardiac cells to conduct electrical impulses. conductivity
the strength of heart muscle contraction. contractility
the condition that results when either atherosclerosis or arteriosclerosis is present in the arterial walls. coronary artery disease (CAD)
veins that collect blood that is returning from the walls of the heart. coronary sinus
the flaps that comprise the heart valves. cusps
the process of electrical discharge and flow of electrical activity from a cell. depolarization
one of the three portions of the aorta, it is the longest portion and extends through the thorax and abdomen into the pelvis. descending aorta
a process whereby leukocytes leave blood vessels to move toward tissue where they are needed most. diapedesis
a continuation of the anterior tibial artery at the foot. dorsalis pedis artery
related to the control of the heart's conduction rate. dromotropic state
the portion of the blood ejected from the ventricle during systole. ejection fraction
an electrical charge difference that is created by the difference in sodium and potassium concentration across the cell membrane at any given instant. electrical potential
a graphic recording of the electrical activity of the heart. electrocardiogram (ECG)
a piece of clot that travels from one part of the body to another, potentially becoming an obstruction to blood flow. embolus
infection of a heart valve. endocarditis
granulocytes that contain granules that stain bright red with the acidic stain, eosin, and function in the body's allergic response. eosinophils
the layer of the serous pericardium that lies closely against the heart; also called the visceral pericardium. epicardium
a naturally occurring hormone with a greater stimulatory effect on beta receptors that also may be given as a cardiac drug. epinephrine
a serious condition that results when a pregnant woman's blood type is incompatible with the fetus' blood type and antibodies from the mother enter the fetal circulation and destroy the fetus' red blood cells erythroblastosis fetalis
a property of cardiac cells that provides the cells with the ability to respond to electrical impulses. excitability
a continuation of the external iliac artery, it supplies circulation to the thigh, external genitalia, anterior abdominal wall, and knee. femoral artery
a continuation of the saphenous vein that drains into the external iliac vein. femoral vein
a white insoluble protein formed in the clotting process. fibrin
an opening between the two atria that is present in the fetus but closes shortly after birth. foramen ovale
a depression between the right and left atria that indicates where the foramen ovale had been located in the fetus. fossa ovalis
a type of leukocyte that has large cytoplasmic granules that are easily seen with a simple light microscope. granulocytes
the process of blood cell production in the bone marrow; also called hemopoiesis. hematopoiesis
an iron-containing pigment found in red blood cells, carries 97% of oxygen. hemoglobin
control of bleeding by formation of a blood clot. hemostasis
a substance found in large amounts in basophils that inhibits blood clotting. heparin
a specialized part of the venous system that drains blood from the liver, stomach, intestines, and spleen. hepatic portal system
the veins to which blood empties after liver cells in the sinusoids of the liver extract nutrients, filter the blood, and metabolize various drugs. hepatic veins
one of two major large veins that return deoxygenated blood to the heart via the right atrium. Blood from the lower body is returned to the heart by the inferior vena cava. inferior vena cava
related to the strength of the heart's contraction. inotropic state
a membrane that separates the right and left atria. interatrial septum
a thick wall that separates the right and left ventricles. interventricular septum
insufficient oxygen at a particular tissue site often associated with obstruction of arterial blood flow to the site. ischemia
the two main veins that drain the head and neck. jugular veins
the opening or hollow part of a blood vessel. lumen
the space between the lungs, in the center of the chest, that contains the heart, trachea, mainstem bronchi, part of the esophagus, and large blood vessels. mediastinum
pain caused by partial occlusion of the mesenteric artery from atherosclerosis. mesenteric angina
blockage of a mesenteric artery resulting in necrosis of a portion of the bowel. mesenteric infarction
the valve in the heart that separates the left atrium from the left ventricle. mitral valve
an abnormal heart sound, heard as a "whooshinglike" sound indicating turbulent blood flow within the heart. murmur
blockage of the arteries that supply oxygen to the heart, resulting in death to a portion of the myocardium. myocardial infarction
the heart muscle. myocardium
the first positive wave in the normal cardiac conduction pattern, it represents movement of the electrical impulse through the atria, resulting in atrial contraction. P wave
a flat line or electrical pause that follows the P wave in the normal electrical conduction pattern and represents the time delay that occurs within the atrioventricular node. P-R segment
specialized muscles that attach the ventricles to the cusps of the valves by muscular strands called chordae tendineae cordis. papillary muscles
one of two layers of the serous pericardium. It is separated from the visceral pericardium by a small amount of pericardial fluid. parietal layer
a condition, often caused by trauma, in which the pericardial sac fills with too much fluid, hampering the heart's ability to expand and contract properly. pericardial effusion
a serous fluid that fills the space between the visceral pericardium and the parietal pericardium and helps to reduce friction. pericardial fluid
the fluid-filled potential space between the layers of the pericardium. pericardial sac
a life-saving procedure to correct cardiac tamponade, in which a needle is inserted into the pericardial sac to remove excess fluid that is restricting the heart from expanding and contracting properly. pericardiocentesis
infection or inflammation of the pericardial membranes, resulting in severe chest pain. pericarditis
the serous membranes that surround the heart. pericardium
inflammatory condition involving veins; often associated with thrombus formation within the vein. phlebitis
the state of the resting cell, which normally has a net negative charge with respect to the outside of the cell. polarized state
a continuation of the femoral artery at the lower thigh. popliteal artery
the vein that forms when the anterior and posterior tibial veins unite at the knee. popliteal vein
the circulatory system in the body that carries blood from the right side of the heart to the lungs, and back to the left side of the heart. pulmonary circulation
a potentially life-threatening condition that occurs when an embolus travels from one part of the body (typically the legs) to the lungs, blocking blood flow to a portion of the lung. pulmonary embolism
the semilunar valve that regulates blood flow between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery. pulmonic valve
the second positive waveform that follows the P-R segment in the normal electrical conduction pattern and represents the depolarization of the ventricles. This complex corresponds to ventricular contraction, or systole. QRS complex
spasms that develop in the digital arteries, particularly following emotional stress or cold exposure, resulting in white and cool fingertips. Raynaud's phenomenon
the process of returning to the cardiac cells' resting or polarized state that occurs once the cardiac cells depolarize. repolarization
an acute condition that affects children and young adults and may result in permanent damage to the aortic and mitral valves. rheumatic fever
the longest vein in the body, it drains the leg, thigh, and dorsum of the foot. saphenous vein
the two valves, the aortic and pulmonic valves, that divide the heart from the aorta and pulmonary artery. semilunar valves
the inner membrane of the pericardium, which contains two layers called the visceral pericardium and the parietal pericardium. serous pericardium
the normal site of the origin of electrical impulses; located high in the right atrium, it is the heart's natural pacemaker. sinoatrial (SA) node
a part of the hepatic portal system in which blood collects within the liver and the liver cells extract nutrients from the blood, filter the blood, and metabolize various drugs. sinusoids
the second pause that occurs in the normal electrical conduction pattern and represents the beginning of repolarization of the heart. ST segment
the amount of blood that the left ventricle ejects into the aorta per contraction. stroke volume
the proximal part of the main artery of the arm, which supplies the brain, neck, anterior chest wall, and shoulder. subclavian artery
the proximal part of the main vein of the arm, which unites with the internal jugular vein. subclavian vein
one of two major large veins that return deoxygenated blood to the heart via the right atrium. Blood from the upper body is returned to the heart by the superior vena cava. superior vena cava
the circulatory system in the body that is responsible for blood flow in all areas of the body, except for areas covered by the pulmonary circulation. systemic circulation
contraction of the ventricular mass with its concomitant pumping of blood into the system circulation. systole
the third positive waveform in the normal electrical conduction pattern; it represents the completion of repolarization. T wave
a continuation of the veins of the feet that unite at the knee to form the popliteal vein, which then drains into the femoral vein. tibial veins
the heart valve that separates the right atrium from the right ventricle. tricuspid valve
the outer layer of tissue of a blood vessel wall, composed of elastic and fibrous connective tissue. tunica adventitia
the smooth, thin, inner lining of a blood vessel. tunica intima
the middle and thickest layer of tissue of a blood vessel wall, composed of elastic tissue and smooth muscle cells that allow the vessel to expand or contract in response to changes in blood pressure and tissue demand. tunica media
the blood vessels that transport blood back to the heart. veins
spaces between the membranes surrounding the brain that are the primary means of venous drainage from the brain. venous sinuses
one of the two lower chambers of the heart that pumps blood out of the heart. ventricle
The layer of the serous pericardium that lies closely against the heart; also called the epicardium. visceral layer
all things that influence the circulation of blood/a collection of mechanisms that influence the dynamic circulation of blood hemodynamics
what are the four major structures (in order of their action) of the heart's conduction system? SA (sinoatrial node), AV (atrioventricular node), AV bundle (bundle of His), Subendocardial branches (Purkinje fibers)
Where is the SA node located? R Atrium
What is the SA node? The heart's pacemaker--it initiates each beat and sets the pace
Why is the SA node the heart's pacemaker? It possesses specialized pacemaker cells that possess an intrinsic rhythm without any stimulation from the brain.
What does ECG stand for? electrocardiogram
What does an ECG do? create a graphic record of the heart's electrical activity to provide information on different types of heart disease
The cardiac cycle begins with which "wave"? P-wave
What does an arterial line measure? Blood CO2 levels
Heart symptoms will increase was what increases? Blood viscosity
The venous system lacks what? Pumps
What does the venous system rely on to move blood? Surrounding muscles
What states that capillaries the pressure gradient determines the level of fluid that moves in and out of capillaries (osmotic pressure)? Starling's law of capillaries
How does ADH maintain total blood volume? By decreasing fluid output
Atrialnaturetic hormone (ANH) is an antagonist to which other hormone? ADH
What is released when the kidney BP is low? renin
Renin leads to an increased secretion of what? aldosterone
Angiotensin II causes what and encourages what? Vasoconstriction; an increase in overall blood flow
cardiac muscle fibers that conduct electrical impulses from the AV bundle into the ventricular walls. (also known as Purkinje fibers.) Conduction myofibers
chest pain due to ischemia of the heart muscle. angina pectoris
listening to internal body sounds, generally with a stethoscope. auscultation
essation of the normal circulation of blood due to failure of the heart to contract effectively. cardiac arrest
a condition where the heart is enlarged cardiomegaly
a general term for disease of the myocardium which causes enlargement of the heart muscle. cardiomyopathy
LEFT heart failure--the inability of the left ventricle to pump effectively, resulting in congestion in the systemic and pulmonary circulations Congestive Heart Failure
he process of anastamosing two arteries (by using vein grafts from other parts of the body) to bypass a coronary artery blockage. Coronary bypass
failure of the right atrium and ventricle to pump blood effectively, resulting from obstruction of pulmonary blood flow. Cor pulmonale
application of an electric shock to force cardiac muscle fibers to contract in unison. defibrillation
condition when individual muscle fibers contract asynchronously with other muscle fibers producing no effective movement. “Also called dead” (Tex, 2011). fibrillation
the blockage of impulse conduction from atria to ventricles so that the heart beats at a slower rate than normal. heart block
condition in which the bicuspid mitral valve extends into the left atrium, causing the valve to leak. mitral valve prolapse
he death of ischemic (oxygen-deprived) heart muscle cells myocardial infarction (MI)
sound of blood turbulence heard when measuring arterial blood pressure with a sphygmomanometer. Korotkoff sounds
resistance to blood flow caused by friction of blood passing through blood vessels. peripheral resistance
reduction in vessel diameter caused by increased contraction of the muscular coat. vasoconstriction
increase in vessel diameter caused by relaxation of vascular muscles. vasodilation
radiography in which radiopaque contrast is injected into a vessel to make it visible under flouroscopy. angiography
radiography in which radiopaque contrast is injected into arteries to make it visible under flouroscopy. arteriogram
radiography in which radiopaque contrast is injected into veins to make it visible under flouroscopy. venogram
radiography in which radiopaque contrast is injected into lymphatic vessels to make it visible under flouroscopy. lymphangiogram
procedure to open blood vessels occluded by arteriosclerosis. angioplasty
hardening of arteries caused by the accumulation of lipids. arteriosclerosis/atherosclerosis
percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) whereby a catheter allows surgical tools to remove athersclerotic plaque from arteries, clearing the way for normal blood flow. atherectomy
swelling in artery walls generally caused by a build up of macrophage cells that contain lipids. atheroma
abnormal build up of blood vessels in the skin. hemangioma
varicose veins found in the rectum. hemorroids
decreased blood flow through an organ. hypoperfusion
decreased blood supply to a tissue resulting in cell function impairment. ischemia
inflammation of a vein. phlebitis
the process of making an incision in a vein. phlebotomy
a condition in which the blood vessels spasm in cold temperatures which blocks blood flow to the extremeties. Reynaud's phenomenon
enlarged vein in which blood pools. varicose veins
the inflammation and subsequent destruction of blood vessels. vasculitis
multiple P waves means what is happening? the atria are beating too fast/atrial arrhythmia
2-3 P waves prior to the QRS complex Atrial flutter
Several P waves, generally making them difficult to see on ECG, prior to the QRS complex A-fib/syncopy
multiple QRS complexes means what is happening? the ventricles beat twice or more and too quickly.
several QRS waves V-tach
continuous QRS waves V-fib
2 QRS waves to every regular cardiac cycle is called what? Premature Ventricular Contraction (PVC)
The heart lies between which two ribs 2 and 6
The heart's apex lies on what? the diaphragm
The heart continues to grow until what age? 25
The shape of the chest influences what? the shape of the heart
High BP eventually will do what to the left ventricle cause enlargement of the inner myocardium, increasing pressure on the mitral valve
the right atrium collects what kind of blood? venous
the left atrium collects what kind of blood? arterial
What is the most common location for heart problems and why? mitral valve because of the great amount of left ventricular pressure
If blood backs up in the left atrium, what symptoms will this cause? lowered blood oxygen
What is the heart's skeleton made of? Semi-rigid rings that support the valves and serve as electrical barriers
A heart attack in which ventrical is most dangerous? Left
What serves as the main blood supply to the coronary arteries? The aorta
Most forms of heart disease involves which vessels? Arteries
When high potassium fluid is added to the heart during open heart, this is called what? cardioplegia
What happens if the SA and AV nodes file simultaneously? Dead
Where are the vagus fibers found? In the digestive tract
What is the cardiac plexus? A combination of sympathetic and parasympathetic fibers and an area for the brain to talk to the heart.
What two systems connect in capillary beds? venous and arterial
What are the most important functional units outside the heart? capillary beds
What are capillary beds? Thin-walled vessels that deliver O2 and nutrients to organs and tissues and provide for an exchange between the arterial and venous systems.
How much blood does the heart pump per minute? 5 quarts
Blue blood is what kind of blood? O2 poor
Red blood is what kind of blood? O2 rich
It is difficult to completely cut off blood flow to the brain because of what blood vessel system? The Circle of Willis
What is the first pass effect? the % of drug destroyed by the liver before it reaches the body
Anything taken orally (drugs) will go through what first? the hepatic portal system
What is the hepatic portal system? Veins from the spleen, stomach, pancreas, gall bladder, and intestines that all send their blood to the liver before distribution to the body
What two organs in the fetus are not needed until just before birth? Liver and lungs
What is the hold in the heart between the two atria? Foramen ovale
Where does fetal blood get its oxygen? The placenta
What returns the oxygenated blood from the placenta to the fetus? The umbilical vein
What drains venous blood of the fetus into the vena cava? The ductus venosus
What small vessel connects the pulmonary artery with the aorta? The ductus arteriosus
Created by: fire107



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