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Heart broken

Studying the heart

QuestionAnswer
THREE LAYERS OF THE HEART ENDOCARDIUM, MYOCARDIUM, EPICARDIUM
ENDOCARDIUM most inner layer. lined with valves and blood vessels. smooth & shiny, lets blood flow over it easy.
ENDOCARDIUM middle layer. composed of cardiac muscle. thickest. allows the heart to act as a pump. contracts & pumps, contracts & pumps. contains actin & myosin.
EPICARDIUM thin outer layer.
PERICARDIUM sling-like structure that supports the heart. attaches the heart to surrounding structures. contains 30ml serous fluid
4 CHAMBERS OF THE HEART right atrium, right ventricle, left atrium, left ventricle.
RIGHT ATRIUM thin walled cavity. receives unoxygenated blood from the superior & inferior vena cava.
SUPERIOR VENA CAVA collects blood from the head and upper body.
INFERIOR VENA CAVA collects blood from the lower part of the body
RIGHT VENTRICLE receive unoxygenated blood from the right atrium. then pumps blood thru the pulmonary arteries to the lungs.
LEFT ATRIUM thin wall cavity that receives oxygenated blood from the lungs thru the 4 pulmonary veins
LEFT VENTRICLE receives oxygenated blood from the left atrium. pumps the blood into the sestemic circulation thru the aorta.
AORTA largest artery in the body. hardest working chamber. very thick. muscle(thickest). needs to create force to pump enough blood out of the heart.
VENTRICULAR HYPERTROPHY if ventricle is forced to overwork it will eventually enlarge.
4 HEART VALVES right atrioventricular valve(AV), left atrioventricular valve(AV), pulmonic semilunar valve(right semilunar valve), aortic semilunar valve(left semilunar valve)
HEART VALVES PURPOSE keep blood flowing in a forward direction. lie at the enterence & exit of the ventricles.
ATRIOVENTRICULAR VALVES (AV VALVES) "the enterence valves" two located between the atria and the ventricles of each side of the heart.
RIGHT ATRIOVENTRICULAR VALVE(AV VALVE) located between right atrium and right ventricle and called the TRICUSPID VALVE.
LEFT ATRIOVENTRICULAR VALVE(AV VALVE) located between left atrium and left ventricle. also, called the BICUSPID or MITRAL VALVE.
SEMILUNAR VALVES(EXIT VALVES) exit of blood from the ventricules
PULMONIC SEMILUNAR VALVE(RIGHT SEMILUNAR VALVE) located between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery. right ventricle relaxes, valve is closed. when right ventricle contracts blood from ventricle forces pulmonic valve open.
AORTIC SEMILUNAR VALVE(LEFT SEMILUNAR VALVE) located between left ventricle and the aorta.
GREAT VESSELS include superior & inferior vena cava, pulmonary artery, four pulmonary veins & aorta.
CHORDOE TENDINEAE tough bands of connective tissue that connect AV valves to ventricles.
LEAKY OR INCOMPETENT valves allows blood to leak back into the chamber from which it has just been pumped.
HEART SOUNDS vibrations caused by the closure of the valves.(lubb dubb)
MURMUR OR ANY VALVULAR DISEASES S3 & S4 are extra sounds heard by rapid flow of blood thru the ventricles and sounds like a gallop sound.
SHUNTS passageway that diverts blood from its normal circulatory path
CORONARY ARTERIES encircle the heart, rise from the base of the aorta. nourishes and supplies oxygen to the myocardium.
ANGINA decrease blood flow. blockage in coronary arteries will cause angina.
CORONARY VEINS collects blood that nourishes the heart. carries it to the coronary sinuses which empties blood into the right atrium.
ISCHEMIA(not enough oxygen) if coronary blood flow diminishes the myocardium experience oxygen deprivation ISCHEMIA(NOT ENOUGH OXYGEN). it can occur from plaque which occludes the blood flow the person will experience chest pain(angina) that often radiates to the left shoulder & dow
MI (HEART ATTACK) MYOCARDIAL INFARCT coronary occlusions worsen and completely blocks the coronary blood flow, myocardial cells die due to lack of oxygen causing an MI
SINAATRIAL NODE(SA NODE) located in right atrium. cardiac impulse(electrical signal) originates. SA Node fires 60-100 times/minute. sets rate of heart beats or contracts. avg. 72/min.
"Pacemaker of the Heart" SA Node (normal & impulse originates in the SA Node)
SINUS RHYTHEM any normal firing of the SA Node
An electrical signal is called action potiential or cardiac impulse
GOES FROM SA NODE INTO AV NODE(TO SLOW DOWN SO VENTRICLES CAN FILL)LOCATED IN THE RIGHT ATRIUM.CARDIAC IMPULSES SLOW AS IT MOVES THRU THE AV NODE INTO THE BUNDLE OF HIS. (SPECIAL CONDUCTION TISSUE LOCATED IN THE SEPTUM) SLOWING ALLOWSTIME FOR THE VENTRICLES TO FILL WITH BLOOD.
PURKINJE FIBERS conducting fibers that rapidly spread electric signal thru out ventricles.
ELECTROCARDIOGRAM(ECG) place electrobes on surface of the chest attach them to a recording device. records electrical signals of the heart.
P-WAVE atrial depolarization(precedes and triggers contaction of the heart muscle)
P-R-INTERVAL the time it takes for the cardiac impulses to travel from the atria(Pwave) to the ventricles(QRS complex)
DEPOLARIZATION electrical event that triggers contraction of the heart.
SYSTOLE contraction of the heart muscle-myocardium-pumps blood out of a chamber
DIASTOLE relaxation of the heart muscle-blood fills a chamber.
DESCRIBE THE FUNCTION OF THE MYOCARDIUM systole & diastole
SYMPATHETIC STIMULATION A. increases SA Node activity(increase heart rate) B. increases the speed of cardiac impulse C. increases the force of contraction.
PARASYMPATHETIC (VAGUS NERVE) STIMULATION A. decreases SA Node activity(heart rate). B. decreases the speed of the cardiac impulse.
MYOCARDIUM DEFRACTION (decrease) lower heart rate. heart attacks and drugs(digoxin) can cause excess vagal discharge. Which leads to bradycardia(less than 60).
VAGOMIMETIC DRUG mimics vagel response(slows heart rate-digoxin)
VAGOLYTIC blocks the effects of vagel stimulation(increase heart rate-Atropione(treats bradycardia)
CARDIAC OUTPUT amount of blood pumped by each ventricle in 1 minute.
STROKE VOLUME amount of blood ejected from the ventricles in 1 beat 60-80ml/beat
STARLING LAW OF THE HEART degree of stretch in the myocardial fibers
EJECTION FRACTION percentiage of blood that is pumped out of the ventricle with each heart beat
LEFT LUNG PROBLEMS RESPITORY ISSUES
Created by: Pooh_bear_pa