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MC Bio 204 ch 14

the peripheral nervous system

endoneurium individual axons, whether myelinated or unmyelinated, are wrapped in -----
perineurium groups of axons are arranged in bundles called fascicles, each of which is wrapped in -----
epineurium the superficial covering over the entire nerve
olfactory receptors L/olfactory epithelium (superior part of nasal cavity)
olfactory nerve (I) (S) F/smell
optic nerve (II) (S) F/vision
oculomotor nerve (III) (M) somatic motor F/movement of upper eyelid and eyeball || autonomic motor F/alters lens shape and pupil size
trochlear nerve (IV) (M) somatic motor F/movement of the eyeball
optic chiasm X-shaped area where the optic nerves cross || L/anterior to the primary visual area (occipital lobe of cerebral cortex)
trigeminal nerve (V) (B) S/three branches: ophthalmic, maxillary, mandibular || sensory F/touch, pain, temperature, proprioception || somatic motor F/chewing
abducens nerve (VI) (M) F/movement of the eyeball
facial nerve (VII) (B) sensory F/taste and proprioception || somatic motor F/facial expression || autonomic motor F/secretion of tears and saliva
vestibulocochlear nerve (VIII) (S) S/two branches: vestibular and cochlear || vestibular branch F/conveys impulses related to equilibrium || cochlear branch F/hearing
glossopharyngeal nerve (IX) (B) sensory F/taste and other sensations from tongue; proprioception in swallowing muscles; monitoring blood pressure and blood gases || somatic motor F/swallowing and speech || autonomic motor F/stimulates secretion of saliva
vagus nerve (X) (B) sensory F/taste and sensations from epiglottis and pharynx; from visceral organs in thorax and abdomen || somatic motor F/swallowing and speech || autonomic motor F/muscle contractions in organs of the resp. and GI tract; secretion of digestive fl
accessory nerve (XI) (M) somatic motor F/swallowing and head movement
hypoglossal nerve (XII) (M) F/movement of tongue during speech and swallowing
31 pairs of spinal nerves 8 cervical (C1-C8) || 12 thoracic (T1-T12) || 5 lumbar (L1-L5) || 5 sacral (S1-S5) || 1 coccygeal (Co1)
posterior root ganglion F/contains bodies of sensory neurons
rami after passing through its intervertebral foramen, a spinal nerve divides into several branches known as -----
typical branches of a spinal nerve posterior ramus, anterior ramus, meningeal branch, rami communicantes
plexus a "braid" or network of rami from multiple spinal nerves (T2-T12 do not participate)
cervical plexus formed by C1-C4, with contributions from C5
brachial plexus formed by C5-C8 and T1
lumbar plexus formed by L1-L4
sacral plexus formed by L4-L5 and S1-S4
lesser occipital nerve O/C2 || F/S/skin of scalp posterior and superior to ear
greater auricular nerve O/C2-C3 || F/S/skin over ear and over parotid glands
transverse cervical nerve O/C2-C3 || F/S/skin over the anterior neck
supraclavicular nerve O/C3-C4 || F/S/skin over superior chest and shoulder
ansa cervicalis nerve O/C1-C3 || F/M/infrahyiod and geniohyoid muscles of the neck
phrenic nerve O/C3-C5 || F/M/diaphragm
long thoracic nerve O/C5-C7 || F/M/serratus anterior muscle
pectoral nerve O/C5-T1 || F/M/pectoralis major and pectoralis minor muscles
axillary nerve O/C5-C6 || F/M/deltoid and teres minor muscles || F/S/skin over deltoid and superior posterior arm
median nerve O/C5-T1 || F/M/flexors of forearm, except flexor carpi ulnaris || F/S/lateral two thirds of palm of hand and fingers
radial nerve O/C5-T1 || F/M/triceps brachii and other extensor muscles of arm and forearm || F/S/posterior arm and forearm, lateral two-thirds of dorsum of hand
ulnar nerve O/C8-T1 || F/M/flexor carpi ulnaris, flexor digitorum profundus, and most muscles of the hand || F/S/skin over medial hand
iliohypogastric nerve O/L1 || F/M/abdominal muscles || F/S/skin over inferior abdomen and buttocks
iliolinguinal nerve O/L1 || F/M/abdominal muscles || F/S/skin of superior medial thigh, genitals
obturator nerve O/L2-L4 || F/M/adductor muscles of thigh || F/S/skin over medial thigh
femoral nerve O/L2-L4 || F/M/flexor muscles of thigh and extensor muscles of leg || F/S/skin over anterior and medial thigh and medial side of leg and foot
sciatic nerve O/L4-S3 || S/two branches: tibial and common fibular || F/M/hamstring and adductor magnus muscles || F/S/tibial branch/skin over posterior leg and plantar surface of foot || F/S/common f branch/skin over anterior leg and dorsum of foot
pudendal nerve O/S2-S4 || F/M/muscles of perineum || F/S/genitals
cranial reflexes vs. spinal reflexes cranial: integration occurs in the gray matter of the brain stem || spinal: integration occurs in gray matter of the spinal cord
somatic reflexes vs. autonomic reflexes somatic involve contraction of skeletal muscles || autonomic involve responses of smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and glands (often not perceived)
five functional components of a reflex arc sensory receptor, sensory neuron, integrating center, motor neuron, effector
pupillary light reflex a rare example of an autonomic reflex that can easily be tested clinically
monosynaptic vs. polysynaptic reflex arcs monosynaptic arcs have only one synapse in the integrating center || polysynaptic arcs (more common) involve more than two types of neurons and more than one integrating center synapse
reciprocal innervation a neural circuit in which the integrating center inhibits muscles antagonistic to the primary muscle involved in the reflex || ----- prevents conflict between opposing muscles and is vital in coordinating body movements
patellar reflex the "knee jerk" in medical checkups || a type of monosynaptic, ipsilateral stretch reflex
the flexor reflex aka withdrawal reflex || a polysynaptic, ipsilateral reflex that activates several muscles in response to a painful stimulus
special senses vs. somatic senses 5 special senses: vision, hearing, taste, smell, equilibrium || 4 somatic senses: pain, thermal, tactile, and proprioceptive sensations
interoceptors sensory receptors that monitor the internal environment of the body; their sensations are not usually consciously perceived
dual innervation most organs receive impulses from both the sympathatic and parasympathetic autonomic motor systems || exceptions: kidney, spleen, hair follicles/arrector pili
preganglionic vs. postganglionic neurons in autonomic motor pathways, preganglionic neurons transmit impulses from the CNS to an autonomic ganglion; postganglionic neurons transmit from the autonomic ganglion to an effector
two types of sympathetic ganglia sympathetic trunk ganglia and prevertebral ganglia
sympathetic trunk ganglia L/in a vertical row on either side of the vertebral column
prevertebral ganglia L/in the abdomen, anterior to the vertebral column
terminal ganglia in parasympathetic motor pathways, ----- are located close to or within their target organ (thus, in the parasympathetic division postganglionic neurons are short)
pelvic splanchic nerves parasympathetic preganglionic neurons leaving sacral segments of the spinal cord extend through the anterior roots of spinal nerves, then branch off to form ----- that continue to terminal ganglia near or within the walls of visceral effectors
autonomic plexuses in the thorax, abdomen, and pelvis, axons of both symp and parasymp neurons form tangled networks called -----, many of which lie along major arteries
cardiac plexus an autonomic plexus that supplies the heart
pulmonary plexus an autonomic plexus that supplies the bronchial tree
cholinergic vs. adrenergic neurons: neurotransmitters cholinergic release the neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh) || adrenergic release norepinephrine
cholinergic vs. adrenergic neurons: location cholinergic = all symp + parasymp pregang neurons; symp postgang neurons that innervate sweat glands; all parasym postgang neurons || adrenergic = most symp postgang neurons
two major types of cholinergic receptor nicotinic (main effect: muscle contraction) || muscarinic (main effect: sweating)
two major types of adrenergic receptor alpha (1 and 2) and beta (1, 2, and 3)
autonomic tone the balance between symp and parasymp activity or ----- is regulated by the hypothalamus
the fight-or-flight response the classic symp response || elements: dilation of pupils; increase in heart rate and blood pressure; constriction of blood vessels that serve GI tract; dilation of vessels that supply skeletal muscles, heart, liver; liver breaks down glycogen to glucose
five major parasympathetic responses SLUDD || salivation, lacrimation, urination, digestion, defecation
L/the integrating centers for most autonomic reflexes the hypothalamus and brain stem
musculocutaneous nerve O/C5-C7 || F/M/flexors of arm, including biceps brachii || F/S/skin over lateral forearm
Created by: dglenn34



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