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Bio 104 Chapt 4

Muscle Tissue

QuestionAnswer
Composed of fibers that contract, causing movement.Three types:Skeletal, Smooth, Cardiac. Muscle Tissue
The cell membrane surrounding each muscle fiber Sarcolemma
Several muscle fibers bundled together, separated by endomysium Fasciculus
Connective tissue that separates muscle fibers in a fasciculus Endomysium
Connective tissue that surrounds a muscle Perimysium
A layer of fibrous connective tissue outside the epimysium that separates individual muscles Fascia
The specialized nerve cells that deliver an impulse to the muscle cell, causing it to contract Motor neurons
The junction between a motor neuron and a muscle fiber Neuromuscular Junction/Synapse
The portion of the neuromuscular synapse at the distal end of the nerve fiber Presynaptic terminal
Portion of the neuromuscular synapse at the proximal portion of the muscle fiber Postsynaptic terminal
Lies in a space in the neuromuscular junction, between the nerve and muscle. Space across which a nerve impulse is transmitted Synaptic cleft
A change in electrical potential that occurs when a cell or tissue has been activated by a stimulus Action Potential
The _________ ___________contains numerous synaptic vesicles that contain the chemical acetylcholine, which functions as a neurotransmitter presynaptic terminal
A substance that transmits nerve impulses across a synapse Neurotransmitter
The movement of the vesicles is stimulated by the influx of calcium (Ca2+) ions into the _____________ nerve terminal presynaptic
Once it crosses the ____________cleft, acetylcholine causes an increase in the muscle membrane's permeability, allowing sodium (Na+) ions to diffuse into the cell via special protein ion channels, producing an electrical change synaptic
During muscle contraction, the ___________ shorten as the actin myofilaments slide over the surface of the myosin sarcomeres
This occurs when calcium is actively transported back into the sarcoplasmic reticulum Muscle Relaxation
Muscle contraction requires energyThe main source of energy for muscle contraction in the body is _____, which can be converted to ______ ATP, ADP
An organic acid that can lower the intracellular pH Lactic acid
An iron-containing pigment found in red blood cellsCarries about 97% of the oxygen in the body Hemoglobin
An iron-containing red pigment found in muscle fibers Myoglobin
What is made up of spindle-shaped cells with a single nucleus. Smaller than skeletal muscle cells. The cells contain fewer actin and myosin myofilaments than skeletal muscle cells. Myofilaments are not organized into sarcomeres Smooth Muscle
Sheets of muscle that form the layers of the digestive, reproductive, and urinary tracts Visceral smooth muscle
______ muscle contraction is involuntary Smooth
A cell at rest, waiting to react to a stimulus Polarized cell
Requires a trigger or minimum energy levelResults in the opening of channels, allowing sodium to rush in.An action potential fires, stimulating surrounding cells Polarized cell
The unique ability of cardiac muscle to generate its own electrical activity Intrinsic automaticity
The recovery phase, Sodium leaves the cell, Cell returns to a polarized state Repolarization
End of a muscle that is attached to the more stationary of two bones Origin (head)
End attached to the bone undergoing the greatest movement Insertion
Largest portion of the muscle, between the origin and the insertion Belly
Tough, ropelike cords of fibrous tissue that attach muscles to bone Tendons
Muscles that work together to accomplish a particular movement Synergists
Muscles working in opposition to other muscles Antagonists
When a group of muscles is involved in a movement, this is the muscle that plays the major role in accomplishing the task Prime mover
Muscles that stabilize the origin of the prime mover Fixators
Created by: fire107