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A&P 1-7 vocab

Final exam vocab for chapters 1-7

QuestionAnswer
Chapter 1
anatomy study of the structure of an organism and the relationship of its parts
homeostasis relative constancy of the normal body's internal (fluid) environment
medullary relating to the middle or center of an organ or structure
pathology study of diseased body structures
somatotype classification of body type determined on the basis of certain physical characteristics (ectomorph, endomorph, mesomorph)
pathogenesis pattern of a disease's development
etiology theory, or study, of the factors involved in causing a disease
epidemic refers to a disease that occurs in many individuals at the same time
Chapter 2
octet rule general principle in chemistry wherby atoms usually form bonds in ways that will provide each atom with an outer shell of eight electrons
adenosine triphosphate (ATP) chemical compound that provides energy for use by body cells (blend of adenine and ribosome)
covalent bond chemical bond formed by two atoms sharing one or more pairs of electrons
ionic bond electrocovalent bond; bond formed by transferring of electron from one atom to another
hydrolysis chemical process in which a compound is split by addition of H+ and OH- prortions of a wter molecule
exchange reaction chemical reaction that breaks down a compound and then synthesizes a new compound by switching portions of the molecules; for example, AB + CD = AD + BC
peptide bond bgond that forms between the amino group of one amineo acid and the carboxyl group of another
pH units by which acid and base concentration are measured; scale ranges from 0 (extremly acidic, high H+ concentration) to 14 (extremely basic, low H+ concentration)
Chapter 3
centriole one of a pair of tiny cylinders in the centrosome of a cell; believed to be involved with the spindle fibers formed during mitosis
endoplasmic reticulum network of tubules and vesicles in cytoplasm that contributes to cellular protein manufacture (via attached ribosomes) and distribution
gap junction cell connection formed when membrane channels of adjacent plasma membranes adhere to each other
Golgi apparatus organelle consisting of small sacs stacked on one another near the nucleus that makes carbohydrate compound, combines them with protein molecules, and packages the product for distribution from the cell
desmosome category of cell junction that holds adjacent cells together; consists of dense plate or band of connecting structures of point of adhesion
lysosome membranou organelle containing various enzymes that can dissolve most cellular compounds; called digestive bags or suicide bags of cells
mitochondrion organelle in which ATP generation occurs; often termed "powerhouse of cell"
nucleolus dense, well-defined but membraneless body within the nucleus; critical to protein foration because it "programs" the formation of ribosomes in the nucelus
Chapter 4
anaphase latter stage of mitosis; duplicate chromosomes move to poles of dividing cells
catalyst chemical that speeds up reactions iwthout being changed itself
cellular respiration set of biochemical reactions of a cell that transfer energy from nutrient molecules to ATP molecules
haploid halved number of chromosomes in gametes resulting from meiosis; in humans, 23 chromosomes in a sex cell
interphase mitotic phase immediately before visible condenstation of the chromosomes during which the DNA of each chromosomes replicates itself
prophase first stage of mitosis during which chromosomes become visible
meiosis nuclear division in wichi the number of chromosomes I reduced to half their original number through separation of homologous pairs; produces gametes
mitosis complex process in which a cell's DNA is replicated and divided equally between 2 daughter cells
Chapter 5
Chemotaxis process by which a substance attracts cells or organisms into (or away from) its vicinity. Example- when inflammation mediators attract white blood cells
Diapedesis passage of any formed elements w
Erythrocyte red blood cell
Histogenesis formation of tissue from primary germ layers of embryo
Lamina Propria fibrous connective tissue underlying the epithelium in mucous membrane
Neuroglia nonexcitable supporting cells of nervous tissue
Trabecula tiny branch-like threads in a tissue such as beams of spongy (cancellous) bone that surround a network of spaces
Osteoclast bone-absorbing cell, clast=break
Chapter 6
Cleavage lines or Langer lines Pattern of dense bundles of collagenous fibers that characterize the reticular layers of dermis. Help determine where to make incisions
Cyanosis condition of blueness in skin from lack of oxygen in blood
Germinal Matrix cap-shaped cluster of cells at the bottom of a hair follicle
Lanugo fine and soft hair coat on developing fetus
Medulla Latin for marrow. the inner portion of an organ in contrast to the outer portion or cortex
Melanocyte cell type in stratum basale of the skin that produces melanin pigment granules, releasing them to other nearby skin cells
Sebum secretion of sebaceous gland (oil producing gland of the skin)
Stratum Basale "base layer" deepest layer of epidermis, cells able to reproduce themselves
Chapter 7
Diaphysis shaft of a long bone
Diploe region of spongy (cancellous) bone with in the wall of a flat bone of the cranium
Myeloid tissue red bone marrow, type of soft, diffuse connective tissue, site of hematopoesis
Osteon unit of compact bone made of a tapered cylinder with layered, concentric rings of calcified matrix around the central canal
Osteomalacia bone softening, metabolic skeletal disease,
Perichondrium fibrous covering of cartilage structures
Transverse canal Volkmann's canal, communicating canal between central (or Haversian) canals that contain vessels to carry blood and nerves to osteons
Created by: jenrevans