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Chapter 16: Trans

The Translatic Economy, Trade Wars, and Colonial Rebellion

QuestionAnswer
The Treaty Utrecht -1713 -established boundaries of empire during 1st half of the 18th century
Periods of European Overseas Empires 1.European discovery, exploration, initial conquest, and settlement of the New World 2.Mercantile empires (slavery big part in 1st 2 stages) 3.Overseas trade 4.Decolonization
Mercantilism -economic theory behind system of acquiring colonies -entailed gov'ts heavily regulating trade and commerce in hope of increasing national wealth -economic well-being of home country primary concern
West Indies and Indian subcontinent -sources of rivalry among European powers -they had resources that appealed to many of European powers
flota -commercial vessels in Spain -used to control supplies and bullion that went to and from its colonies -trade outside was forbidden
Charles III of Spain -abolished some of the Spanish monopolies -opened more South American ports to trade and commerce -attempted to increase tax collections and end corruption -introduced the intendant
indendent holder of a public administrative office
peninsulares Persons born in Spain who settles in the Spanish colonies
creoles Persons of Spanish decent born in the Spanish colonies
Slave labor -fundamental aspect of empire building -exploded in Brazil and the Caribbean b/c thanks to cultivation of sugar on plantations
The War of Jenkin's Ear (1739) -Spain and England disagreed over rights to Spanish markets -Spaniards cut off ear of English captain Robert Jenkins -began when Robert Walpole responded to pressure to stop Spanish intervention in trade
The War of Austrian Succession (1740-1748) -Frederick II(Prussia) seized Silesia (Austrian province) -Cardinal Fleury(minster to Louis XV) suppported Prussian aggression against Austria -threatened Britain (wanted the land to belong to Austria) -France supported Spain vs. Brit. in the Americas
The Treaty Utrecht -1713 -established boundaries of empire during 1st half of the 18th century
Periods of European Overseas Empires 1.European discovery, exploration, initial conquest, and settlement of the New World 2.Mercantile empires (slavery big part in 1st 2 stages) 3.Overseas trade 4.Decolonization
Mercantilism -economic theory behind system of acquiring colonies -entailed gov'ts heavily regulating trade and commerce in hope of increasing national wealth -economic well-being of home country primary concern
West Indies and Indian subcontinent -sources of rivalry among European powers -they had resources that appealed to many of European powers
flota -commercial vessels in Spain -used to control supplies and bullion that went to and from its colonies -trade outside was forbidden
Charles III of Spain -abolished some of the Spanish monopolies -opened more South American ports to trade and commerce -attempted to increase tax collections and end corruption -introduced the intendant
indendent holder of a public administrative office
peninsulares Persons born in Spain who settles in the Spanish colonies
creoles Persons of Spanish decent born in the Spanish colonies
Slave labor -fundamental aspect of empire building -exploded in Brazil and the Caribbean b/c thanks to cultivation of sugar on plantations
The War of Jenkin's Ear (1739) -Spain and England disagreed over rights to Spanish markets -Spaniards cut off ear of English captain Robert Jenkins -began when Robert Walpole responded to pressure to stop Spanish intervention in trade
The War of Austrian Succession (1740-1748) -Frederick II(Prussia) seized Silesia (Austrian province) -Cardinal Fleury(minster to Louis XV) suppported Prussian aggression against Austria -threatened Britain (wanted the land to belong to Austria) -France supported Spain vs. Brit. in the Americas
The Diplomatic Revolution of 1756 -series of alliances that set the stage for larger European conflict
Convention of Westminster -an alliance between Prussia and Britain -aimed at preventing the entry of foreign troops into Germany
The Seven Years' War (1756-1763) -began w/ Frederick II's invasion of Saxony -France, Austria, Sweden, Russia, and smaller German states agreed to destroy Prussia -Prussia+Russia made peace -Fredrick II held off Austria+France -quest to pay war debt had consequences in British coloni
Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle -ended the war of of Austrian Succession in a stalemate
William Pitt -used continental wars to leverage England's position in America -used unprecedented number of soldiers in the American colonies, India, and Canada to dominate against the French in every aspect of battle and to gain English possessions
The Treaty of Paris of 1763 -Britain received all of Canada, the Ohio River, and the eastern half of the Mississippi River Valley -Britain returned Pondicherry and Chandernagore(India) and the West Indian islands of Gaudeloupe and Martinique to the French -G.B. emerged a world pow
1764 Sugar Act -attempted to produce more revenue from imports into the colonies by the rigorous collection of what was actually a lower tax
Stamp Act of 1765 -put a tax on legal documents such as newspapers
Intolerable Acts -measures passed by the British Parliament in 1774 to punish the colony of Massachusetts and strengthen Britain's authority in the colonies -laws provoked colonial opposition, which led immediately to the American Revolution
Boston Massacre -March 1770 -British troops killed five citizens
Thomas Paine -wrote "Common Sense" a pamphlet that galvanized public opinion in favor of separation from Great Britain
Boston Tea Party -1773 -Americans threw tea overboard
Continental Congress -opened American ports to trade with all nations -hoped to persuade Parliament to restore self-governing in the colonies
Declaration of American Independence -July 4, 1776 -declared American independence
1783 Treaty of Paris -concluded American Revolution
The American Revolution -war between American colonies and Britain -broad impacts of Continental views of government -established idea of a government based on popular consent rather than on divine law or monarchy
Created by: katsteve