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BIO 104 Chapt 2


The Building Blocks of all life are. Cells
Each Cell is a minute mass of colorless substance, called Protoplasm or Cytoplasm
Substances outside the cell membraane are referred to as Extracelluar
Substances inside the cell membraane are referred to as Intracellular
The basic building blocks of life The Cell
A viscous liquid matrix that supports all internal cellular structures Protoplasm
Provides a medium for intracellular transport of various substances such as nutrients, signaling molecules, and proteins Protoplasm
Surrounds the protoplasm.Consists of fatty substances that separate the cell from its neighbor Cell Membrane
The fatty components of the cell membrane arranged in a double layer Lipid Bilayer
Consists of a complete set of neatly arranged molecules able to alter its structure, depending on the needs of the cell Lipid Bilayer
Particles that have a positive electrical charge Protons
Make up molecules.Composed of smaller particles Atoms
Particles that have a negative electrical charge Electrons
Particles that are uncharged Neutrons
Functions served by proteins in the lipid bilayer: Transporters, Signal receptors, Channels,Ion channels
Maintenance of stable internal physiologic environment Homeostasis
Movement of particles or solutes from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration Diffusion
Movement of a solvent from an area of low solute concentration to one of high concentration through a selectively permeable membrane Osmosis
Shrinkage of a cell that occurs when too much water moves out of the cell Crenation
The swelling and bursting of a cell that occurs when too much water enters the cell Lysis
Movement of water out of plasma across the capillary membrane into interstitial space Filtration
Uptake of material through the cell membrane by a membrane-bound droplet or vesicle that forms within the protoplasm of the cell Endocytosis
Internal structures within the cell that carry out the processes necessary for life Organelles
A central body embedded within the protoplasm of the cell, surrounded by the nuclear envelope Nucleus
Structures containing DNA, located within the nucleus.Human cells contain 23 pairs Chromosomes
Rounded, dense structures within the protoplasm of the nucleus Nucleoli
Organelles that contain RNA and protein. Ribosomes interact with RNA from other parts of the cell to join amino acids together to form proteins. Ribosomes
A set of membranes within the protoplasm that is associated with the formation of various carbohydrate and complex protein molecules Golgi Complex
Small, rod-like organelles that function as the metabolic center of the cell Mitochondria
Hair-like projections on the surface of a cell. Often, several are located on a cell.They act to move materials over the cell surface Cilia
The ongoing process of cell renewal Remodeling
Division of one cell into two genetically identical and equal daughter cells Mitosis
Groups of similar cells working togetherClassified into four types:Epithelial, Connective, Muscle, Nerve Tissue
Covers all of the external surfaces of the body and lines hollow organs within the bodyProvides a protective barrier Epithelial Tissue
Binds the other types of tissue together:Bone, Cartilage, Adipose tissue,Scar tissue Connective Tissue
Overlies the framework of the skeletonClassified by both structure and function Muscle Tissue
Types of Muscle Tissue Skeletal muscle, Cardiac muscle, Smooth muscle
Created by: fire107



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