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Chapter 15: Soc.

Society and Economy under the Old Regime in the Eighteenth Century

Aristocrats -5% of population -controlled majority of the land and soc., eco., and pol. power
Limit the power of the monarchy -aristocrats used existing gov'tal institutions to limit the power of the monarchy
Game Laws -gave aristocratic landowners the exclusive legal eights from 1671 to 1831 to hunt
English Aristocrats -owned 1/4 of all arable land -consisted of about 400 families -many controlled House of Lords and the House of Commons
French Aristocrats -consisted of military officers, bureaucrats, or other individuals who paid for it -fell into two groups: those who held court at Versailles and those who did not
Eastern European Aristocrats -Poland-total control over serfs -Austria and Hungary-nobles exempt from taxation -Hungary and Poland-nobles only ones with political representation -Russia-nobles determined to resist compulsory state service
1785 Charter of the Nobility -Catherine the Great defined the legal rights of nobles and their families in exchange for the nobility's voluntary service of state
Aristocratic Resurgence Term applied to the 18th c aristocratic efforts to resist the expanding power of European monarchies
Corvee -certain amount of forced labor
Banalites -feudal dues peasants had to pay
Taille land tax
vingtieme -meaning one-twentieth -a tax income in France before the revolution
seignur a noble French landowner
robot the amount of landowners demanded from peasants in the Habsburg Monarchy before 1848
The Land and its Tillers -3/4 of all Europeans lived in the country in the 18th c. -England-farmers had legal rights of English citizens;courts run by landowners -Prussia and Austria-landowners complete control over serfs -Russia-serfs had no legal rights and were slave
Households in Northwestern Europe -married couple, children through their teens, and servants -small households (5-6 ppl) -Marriage age- mid-20s -Mortality was high -No more than 2 generations lived under 1 roof
Neolocalism children eventually married and formed their own household
Households in Eastern Europe -marriage age earlier (before 20) -wives often older then husbands -Russian households often consisted of as many as 3 or 4 generations living together in one house
Agricultural Revolution the innovations in farm production that began in the 18th c and led to a scientific and mechanized agriculture
Jethro Tull -financed experiments of others -permitting land to be cultivated for a longer period without having to be left fallow
Robert Bakewell -pioneered new methods of animal breeding
Charles "Turnip" Townsend -learned how to use fertilizer -instituted crop rotation
enclosure method -the consolidation or fencing in of common lands by British landlords to increase production+achieve greater commercial profits -reclamation of waste lands+the consolidation of strips into block fields
Industrial Revolution Mechanization of the European economy that began in Britain in the 2nd half of the 18th c.
Domestic system of textile production Method of producing new textiles in which agents furnished raw materials to households whose members spun them into thread and then wove cloth, which the agents then sold as finished products
spinning jenny a machine invented in England by James Hargreaves around 1765 to mass-produce thread
water frame -a water-powered device invented by Richard Arkwright to produce a more durable cotton fabric -led to a shift in the production of cotton textiles from households to factories
steam engine -permitted industrialization to grow on itself and to expand into one aread of production after another -created by James Watt in 1769
Iron production -essential to manufacturing machinery
Jews in the 18th c. -majority lived in Eastern Europe -victims of intolerance
ghetto separate communities in which Jews were required by law to live
Sumptuary laws -required people of different classes to distinguish themselves by their dress
Enclosures -intended to use land more rationally -were aimed at gaining greater commercial profits -brought turmoil to the social life of the countryside -increased food production -forced independent farmers off the lands they tilled
Old REgime term applied to the pattern of social, political, and economic relationships and institutions that existed in Europe prior to the French Revolution (1789)
Women's Opportunities in the Work Force as a result of the Industrial Revolution -became more restricted and tended to gravitate toward cottage industries and menial labor
Created by: katsteve