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Ch.19Blood

Blood

QuestionAnswer
Definition of blood Liquid connective tissue made of blood plasma.
Functions of blood. Transportation (gasses, nutrients, hormones, waste), Protection(clotting, disease), Regulation (pH, T, Osmotic pressure-BP)
Components of blood. 1)Blood plasma (55%total,91.5%H2O)2)Formed elements (45%total, cell fragments=platelets + cells=99%RBC, 1% WBC)
% of total blood volume occupied by RBC. Average %. Term for low. Hematocrit. 42-47. Anemia.
Process of making blood cell. Primary location during life. Hemopoiesis. Red bone marrow (of spongy bone).
As you age what change occurs to bone marrow? Red bone marrow becomes inactive and is replaced by yellow marrow, decreasing rate of blood cell formation.
Other name for RBCs. Erythrocytes (erythro=red)
RBCs contain what oxygen-carrying protein? Hemoglobin
Why many new RBCs enter the circulation every second? Why? 2 million/sec because RBCs are destroyed at an equally high rate.
Each RBC contains how many O2 carrying molecules? 280 million hemoglobin molecules/RBC (bonus: 33% of total RBC weight)
Shape of RBC. Why? Biconcave disk. O2 binds to concave sides?
What else does hemoglobin carry? CO2 to lungs for exhalation.
What is RBC missing that other cells have? What does this mean? Without a nucleus, it can not reproduce.
Life span of RBC. What happens to old ones? After about 120 days, RBC are recycled (by miacrophages)in the liver and spleen, with no waste products.
Process of making any blood cell? Production of RBCs. Hemopoiesis. Erythropoiesis
Precursor cell of RBC. Where found? Name of cell near end of development? Where found? How long till RBC? Proerythroblast (w/nucleus) in red bone marrow divides several times, then ejects its nucleus (now indented)and called reticulocyte. This cell moves to bloodstream and in 1 to 2 days, mature (lose the last organelles) into RBC.
"retic count" Count of reticulocytes as part of total RBC count.
Name for WBCs. How different than RBC? Leukocytes have a nucleus and no hemoglobin.
Group of WBCs that stain. Types + coloration. Granular leukocytes 1)Basophils (blue-purple w/basic dyes.>w/cancer,leukemia, hypothyroidism) 2)Eosinophils (red-orange w/eosin/acidic dye.>w/parasite infection, allergies)3)Neutrophil (bands when young.1st to infection.>w. bacterial. Phagocytosis)
Group of WBCs that don't stain. Types. Agranular leukocytes (teacher says no vessicles-book says too small) = dead neutrophils/pus. 1)Monocyte (>w/chronic disease + fungus. Days to reach inf. site. Phagocytosis) 2)Lymphocyte (B and T cells only deal with viruses)
Name of monocyte outside blood vessel. Macrophage.
Cell fragments made from stem cells in red bone marrow. Why not cell? Shape? Formation. Function. Lifespan. Recycled by. Platelets. No nucleus. Disc shaped. Hormone thrombopoietin + stem cell = megakaryocytes (splinter into 2000-3000 platelets). Promote clotting. Also form platelet plugs. 5-9days. Liver and Spleen.
Body stopping bleeding. Hemostasis.
Just name 3 mechanisms that reduce blood loss. Vascular spasm, platelet plug formation, and blood clotting.
What first happens when arteries are damaged? Vascular spasm= smooth muscle constricts and can do so for minutes to hours.
What do platelets do to help damaged vessels? Platelets aggregate and stick to each other to from a platelet plug.
What are the 3 stages (fixed sequence) to blood clotting? 1)Formation of prothrombinase (enzyme) + prothrombin (plasma protein of liver)= 2)Thrombin (enzyme) converts fibrinogen (plasma protein of liver) = 3)Fibrin (forms threads that trap formed elements and make clot)
2 initial pathways of blood clotting (speed, mode) Extrinsic (w/in seconds. Tissue factor (TF) leaked into bloodstream from cells outside blood vessel, initiates the formation of prothrombinase). Intrinsic (Slower- minutes. Damage w/in or to vessel. Activators in blood make prothrombinase).
Final pathway of blood clotting. Formation of prothrombinase marks the beginning of the common pathway. Now on to thrombin and fibrin.
Tightening of clot. Clot retraction = Fibrin threads tighten. Some serum (blood plasma-clotting proteins)may escape, formed elements caught. Damaged vessel edges come together. Fibroblasts then come and form connective tissue = scar.
Vitamin for blood clotting. Vitamin K makes 4 of the 13 clotting factors. Bacteria in large intestine break Vit K down so body can use it.
Breakdown of unneeded fibrin threads (clot). Fibrinolysis
Inhibitor of platelet adhesion and release. Produced by what? Prostacyclin produced by WBCs.
Substance that delays, suppresses, or prevents blood clotting. Name and describe 3. Anticoagulant. 1)Heparin (w/antithrombin, blocks thrombin. made by basophils) 2)Antithrombin (blocks several clotting factors) 3)Activated Protein C/ APC (inactivates clotting factors not blocked by antithrombin)
What may cause clotting within the cardiovascular system? Term. Intravascular clotting may be from infection, trauma, or fat deposits w/in vessels.
Stationary blood clot w/in vessel. Moving blood clot (or other debris). Thrombus (clotting in vessel = thrombosis). Embolus (lodged = Embolism).
Cause and S/S of DVT. Deep vein thrombosis = thick blood due to dehydration of pills (BP pills) + sitting for long time = pain in legs. = swollen, red, hot. Sitting doesn't worsen. Painful w/movement
Just names of 2 blood groupings. ABO system/blood group, Rh system/blood group
Blood group based on 2 antigens. Details. ABO system/blood group. Person type named for antigens on RBC (A,B,AB,O).Antibodies in blood do NOT interact with antigens."Donated" blood will be destroyed by antibodies that can bind.
"Universal donor" and "universal recipient" O (antibodies of recipient won't destroy donor RBCs with no antigens). AB (recipient has no antibodies to destroy donor RBCs)
Has Rh antigen on RBC. Doesn't. Role in transfusion. Rh+, Rh-. If Rh- gets Rh+, immune system makes anti-Rh antibodies (all good). If Rh+ given again, RBCs will be destroyed (possible death). Rh+ from first baby. Anti-Rh antibody can cross placenta of 2nd Rh+ (possible miscarriage).
Problem with babies. Drug cure. Rh+ from first baby. Anti-Rh antibody can cross placenta of 2nd Rh+ (possible miscarriage). Anti-Rh antibody RhoGAM given to Rh- mom (after birth, miscarriage, or abortion). Bind to fetal Rh antigens before mom's immune system can make her own antigen.
Created by: 741879016