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ECG Notes 4-17-10

Amount of blood that is circulated through the body in one minute is called? Cardiac output
Amount of blood that is pumped in one contraction of the heart. Stroke volume
What units are used to measure cardiac output? Liters per minute
What is the equation to figure cardiac output? Heartrate X Stroke volume (70 beats divded by(/)minute X 70 ml divided by (/) beat = 4,900ml/min. Changed by: 4,900/1000 becomes 4.9L/min
What is normal ECG paper speed? 25mm
What speed is used for a person with high BP or a infant? 50 mm (MUST note on paper)
How is the ECG done differently for infants? Both left and right sides and tested because a babies heart is more centered
How is a 'q' described? As the first negative
How is a 'r' described? As the first positive
How is a 's' described? As the first negative after the first postive
What is the normal QRS deration? .08 - .12 sec
What is the normal QT interval deration? .32 - .44 sec
What is the primary intrecellular ion? Potassium
What is the primary extracellular ion? Sodium
What mechanism actively transports ions across the membrane against its electrochemical gradient? Sodium-potassium pump
What makes up the His - Purkinje system? Bundle of His , - Right and Left bundle branches - Purkinje fibers
What is the name of the dominant pacemaker? Sinoatrial or sinus node (SA Node)
Where is the SA node located? The wall of the upper right atrium near the inlet of the superior vena cava
What is the normal rate for the the SA node? 60 to 100 beats/minute
What is the discharge rate of the AV node? (Also called the depolarization rate of the AV node.) 40 - 60 beats/minute
What is the discharge rate of the His - Purkinje system? 20 - 40 beats/minute
What are the three functions of the Av node? 1 - Slow down conduction through the AV node; 2 - Serve as a backup pacemaker; 3 - Block some of the impulses when atrail rate is rapid
How is the AV node represented on the ECG tracing? The flat line of the PR interval
P wave depicts what? Atrial depolarization or the spread of the impulse from the SA node throughout the atrial
The PR interval represents what? Time from the onset of atrial depolarization to the onset of ventricular depolarization
The PR segment represents what? Used as the baseline to evaluate elevation or depression of the ST segment. Delay in the AV node. (Shows on ECG paper by the isoelectric (flat) line between the end of the P wave to the beginning of the QRS complex)
What does the QRS complex depict? Ventricular depolarization or the spread of the impulse throughout the ventricles
The does the ST segment represent? The end of ventricular depolarization and the beginning of ventricular repolarization
What does the T wave represent? the latter phase of ventricular repolarization
What does the QT interval represent? Both ventricular depolarization & repolarization
What does a cardiac cycle consist of? One complete heart beat
Define positive deflection - Any wave form above the isoelectric line
Define negative deflection - Any wave form below the isoelectric line
Define Absolute refactory period - cardiac cells have depolarized and are in the process of repolarizing. (Cells cannot respond to a stimulas)
How is the Absolute refactory period shown on ECG paper? From the onset of the QRS complex to the peak of the T wave.
Created by: ct program