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is a conscious or uncousious awareness of external or internal stimuli sensation
conscious awareness and interpretation of a sensation perception
memories of our perception are stored in the cortex
sensation is any stimuli that the BODY is aware of
ex of sensation chemoreceptors, thermo, nocicereceptors, ect..
some sensations that we arent aware of; why cant we? xrays, ultra high frequency sound waves, UV light; no sensory receptors for those stimuli
property by which one sensation is distingished from another sensory modality
generally, each type of sensory neuron can respond to only __ stimulus one
the classes of sensory modalitles are general and special senses
include both somatic and viseral senses, which provide info about conditions within internal organs general senses
include modalitiles of smell, taste, vision, hearing, and equlibrium special senses
events occuring within a sensation; ____ of the recepor & ______ of stimulus into a graded potential - stimulation of recepor-trasduction (conversion) of stimulus into a graded potential
other events occuring within sensation; generation of ____ when graded potental reaches threshold impulses
_____ of sensory input by the CNS can also happen within a sensation integration
no structural specializaions in free nerve endings that provide us with pain, tickle, itch, temp general sensory receptors (somatic receptors)
very complex structures- vision, hearing, taste, smell special sensory structures (special sense recptors)
the structural classifcation of receptors; _____ endings bare ____; for pain, temp, tickle, itch and light touch free nerve endings; bare dendrites
structural classification of receptors;_____ nerve endings for pressure, vibration, and deep touch encapsulated nerve endings
in the encapsulated nerve endings the dendrites enclosed in _______ _____ ____ connective tissue capsule
structual classification of receptors; ______ sensory cells; vision, taste, hearing, balance separate sensory cells
seperate sensory cells are specialized cells that respond to stimuli
detech pressure or stretch; touch, pressure, vibration, hearing, equlibrium and BP mechanoreceptors
detect temp thermoreceptors
detect damagae to tissue nocieptors
detect light photoreceptors
detect molecules; taste, smell and chagnes in body fluid chemistry chemorecptors
free nerve endings, encapsulated n.e and olfactory receptors produce generator potentials
when generator potential is large enough, it generates a _____ it a first order neuron nerve impulse
vision, hearing, equlilbrium and taste receptors produce receptor potential
receptor cells release _____ molecules on first-order neruons producing postsynaptic potentials neurotransmitter
in receptor potential ____ may trigger a nerve impulse PSP
near surface of body; recieve external stimuli exteroceptors
monitors internal env. (BV or viscera); not conscious except for paint or pressure interorecptors
muscle, tendon and joint and internal ear; senses body position and movement proprioceptors
in sensory receptors, the tendency for the generator or receptor potential to decrease in amplitude during a maintained constant stiumulus adaptation
smell, pressure, touch- specialized for dectecting changes rapidly adapting receptors
pain, body position- nerve impulses cont. as long as stimulus persists- pain is not easily ignored slowly adapting receptors
touch, pressure, and vibration plus itch and tickle tactile sensations
refers to ability to perceive that something has simply touched the skin crude touch
provides specific information about a touch sensations such as location, shape, size and texture of the soruce of the stimulation discriminative touch (fine touch)
receptors for touch include _____ and _____ these are rapidly adapting receptors corpuscles of touch (meissners corpuscles) and hair root plexuses
____ and _____ are slowly adapting receptors for touch Merkle discs and end organs of Ruffini
sustainted sensation that is felt over a larger area than touch pressure
generally result from stiumulation of tactile receptor in deeper tissues and are longer lasting and have less variation in intesity than touch sensations pressure sensations
receptors for pressure are _______ and adapt rapidly lamellated (Pacinian) corpuscles
___ and ___ receptors are free nerve endings itch and tickle
___ is the only sensation that you may not elict on yourself tickle
discriminate touch and vibration- rapidly adapting; generate impulses mainly at onset of touch Meissners Corpuscle
in meissners corpuscles the ___ are enclosed in CT in ______ of hairless skin dendrites; dermal papillae
flattened dendrites touching cells of stratum basale; discriminative touch Merkel Disc
25% of receptors in hands merkel Disc
found deep in dermis of skin; detech heavy touch, continuous touch and pressure Ruffini Corpuscle
Sensation of pressure or high frequency vibration Pacinian Corpuscle
found in subcutantous tissues and certain viscera; onion like enclosing a dendrite Pacinian Corpuscle
free nerve endings that are located in nearly every body tissue pain receptors (nocieptors)
free nerve endings found in every tissue of body except brain
in pain sensation tissue injury releases chemicals such as ___, ___ or ____ that stim. nociceptors K, kinin,s or prostaglandins
occurs rapidly after stimuli; Sharp pain like neddle puncture or cut fast (acute) pain
fast pain occurs in larger _ nerve fibers A
begins more slowly and incrases in intensity: aching or throbbing pain of toothache slow (chronic) pain
slow pain is felt in both ___ and ___ tissues superficial and deeper
somatic pain that arises form the stimulation of receptors in the skin is superficial
somatic pain that arises from skeletal muscles, joints and tendors is deep
usually felt in or just under the skin that overlies the siumulated organ visceral pain
pain may also be felt in a surface area far from stiumulated organ in phenomenon known as referred pain
located in skeletal muscles, tendons, in and around joints and in internal ear, movement of body parts and position proprioceptive sensations
awareness of the activites of muscles, tendons and joints, balanace or equlibrium is provided by proprioceptive or kinesthetic sense
in proprioceptice sensations the sensory info is sent to cerebellum and cerebral cortex
receptors from proprioceptive receptors include muscle spindle, tendon organs, and joint kinesthic recepotrs
strechting of muscle streches the muscle spindles sending _______ info back to the ____ sensory info; CNS
spindle sensory fiber monitor changes in _____ muscle lengh
in mus. spindles the brain regulates muscle tone by controlling nerve fibers
golgi tendon organs are found junction of tendon and muscle
when tendon is overly stretched, sensory signals head for CNS , result in the muscles _____ relaxation
found in joint capsule; respond to pressure Ruffini corpuscles
found in CT around joint; respond to acceleration and deceleration of joints Pacinian corpuscles
relay info from somatic receptors to primary somatosensory area in cerebral cortex somatic sensory pathways
____order neuron conduct impulses to the ____ first order: CNS (brainstem or SC) either spinal or cranial nerves
____ order neurons conducts impulses from ____ to _____; cross over to opposite side of body second; brainstem or SC to thalamus
___ order neurons conducts impulses from ____ to primary _______ (postcentral gyrus of parietal lobe) third; thalamus to primary somatosensory cortex
____ or ____ pathways carry mainly pain and temp impulses anterolateral or sinothalamic
anterolateral or spinothalamic are what neuron pathway 3
___ also relay the sensations of tickle itch and some tactile impulses anterolateral pathways
____ ____ tract carries pain and temp lateral spinothalamic
___ tract carries tickle, itch, crude touch and pressue anterior
first cell body in ___ with synapses in cord DRG
2nd cell body in ____ matter of cord, sends fibers to other side of cord and up through ____ matter to synapse in thalamus gray, white
3rd cell body in ___ projects to _____ ____ thalamus to cerebral cortex
the ___ spinocerebellar and ___ spinocerebellar tracts are the major routes whereby ____ impules reach the cerebellum posterior and anterior; proprioceptive
impulses coveyed to the cerebellum are critical for posture, balance, and coordination of skilled movements
these lower motor neurons are called the _____ because many regulatory mechanisms converge of these peripheral neurons final common pathways
motor portions of cerebral cortex initiate and control precise movements
somatic motor pathways: direct pathways from cerebral cortex to SC and out to muscles
somatic motor pathways: indirect pathway includes synapses in cerebellum
direct motor pathways provide input to the lower motor neurons via ____that extend directly from Cerbral Cortex axons
indirect pathways provide input motor neruons from ___ ____ in the brainstem motor centers
damage of lower motor neurons produces flaccid paralysis
while injury to upper motor neurons causes spastic paralysis
primary motor area is located in ____ of the frontal lobe precentral gyrus
upper motor neurons in primary motor area initiate voluntary movements
the _____ area devoted to a muscle is proportional to the number of ____ cortical area; motor units
more cortical area is needed if number of motor units in a muscle is high. examples include vocal cords, tongue, lips, fingers, thumb
include lateral and anterior corticospinal tracts direct pathway or pyramidal tract
___ upper motor neurons in cerebral cortext 1 million
axons form ______ in cerebrum and pyramids in the ______ internal capsules; medulla oblongata
___ of fibers decussate (cross over) in the medulla; right side controls left side muscles 90%
direct motor pathway terminate on ___ which synapse on lower motor neurons interneurons
direct motor pathway terminates on interneurons which synpase on lower motor neurons in either - nuclei of cranial nerves- anterior horns of spinal cord
cortex, cerebral peduncles, 90% decussation of axons in medulla, tract formed in lateral column lateral cortiospinal tracts
skilled movements (hands and feet) lateral cortiocospinal tract
the 10% of axons that do not cross; controls neck and trunk muscles anterior corticospinal muslc;es
damage lower motor neurons flaccid paralysis
no voluntary movement on same side as damage, no reflecx actions, muscle lip and flaccid, decreased muscle tone flaccid
damage to upper motor neurons spastic
paralysis on opposite side from injury, increased muscle tone, exaggerated reflexs spastic
is actice in both learning and performing rapid, coordinated, high skilled movements and in maintaining proper posture and equlibrum cerebellum
damage to cerebellum is evidence by ataxia and intention tremors
cerebellar function - learning- corrdinating and skilled movements- posture and equilibrum
sensation of pain in limb that has been amputated phantom pain
in phantom pain; the brain interprets nerve impulses arising in the remaing proximal portions of the ___ nerves as coming from the _____ limb sensory nerves; nonexistant (phantom) limb
another explination for phantom pain is that the neurons in the brain that revieved input from the missing limb are still acitive
paralysis of one limb only monoplegia
paralysis of both upper or both lower diplegia
paralysis of one side hemiplegia
paralysis of all four limbs quadripleidga
loss of reflex function (areflexia) spinal shock
progressive degeration of CNS neruons of the basal nucli region due to unknown causes that decreases ___ Parkinsons; dopamine
in parkinsons, neruons from the ____ do not release enough dopamine onto ____ _____ substania nigra; basal ganglia
Created by: Mollie28



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