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chap15 ANS

ANS

QuestionAnswer
autonomic nervous system operates via reflex arcs
operation of ANS to maintain homestais depends on a cont. flow of sensory afferent input from receptors in organs and efferent motor output to same effector organs
ANS includes autonomic sensory neruons, integrating centers and autonomic motor neurons
ANS operates without conscious control
ANS is reg. by the hypothalamus and brain stem
somatic contains both sensory and motor neurons
the somatic neruons recieve input from receptors of the special and somatic senses
somatic motor neurons innervate skeletal muscles to produce conscious, voluntary movements
autonomic sensory neruons are associated with interoreceptors
autonomic sensory input is not considered perceived
The ANS also receives sensory input from somatic senses and special sensory neurons
the autonomic motor nuerons regulate visceral activites
the autonomic motor nuerons reg. viseral activ. by either ____ exciting or ____ inhibiting ongoing activies of _____, _____,____ increase, decrease; cardiac, smooth, or glands
all somiatic motor pathways consist of a ___ motor neuron single
autonomic motor pathways consist of ___ motor nuerons in series two
the first autonomic neuron motor has its cell body in the _____ and its myelinated axon extends to an autonomic ganglion CNS
the first autonomic motor neuron may extend to the _____ rather than an autonomic ganglion adrenal medullae
the second autonomic motor neruon has its cell body in a ______; its nonmyelinated axon extends to an effector autonomic ganglion
in the preganlionic neuron the cell body is in the brain or spinal cord
preganlionic neruon the axon is ____ type __ fiber that extends to autonomic ganglion myelinated; type B
postganglionic neuron the cell bodies lies outside the ___ in the _____ CNS; autonomic ganglion
postganglionic axon is ____ type __ fiber that terminates in a viseral effector unmyelinated; type C
the output (efferent) part of the ANS is divided into: sym & para sympatheic
organs that recieve inpulses from both sypathtic and parasym. are said to have dual innervation or opposing systems
one speeds up and organ; one slows down and organ dual innervation
these ganglion include the sympathtic trunk or verterbal chain or paravertebral ganglia that lie in a verticle row on either side of the verterbral column sypatheic ganglia
other sympatheic ganglia are the prevertebral or collateral ganglia that lie anterior to the spinal column and close to large abdominal arteries: 3 examples - celiac- superior mesenteric- inferior mesenteric ganglia
_____ _____ are the terminal or intramural ganglia that are located very close to or actually within the wall of viseral organ parasym. ganglia
These are tangled networks of sym. and parasym neurons which lie along major arteries autonomic plexuses
in the sympathic NS; preganglionic cell bodies at T1-L2
SNS; white ramus= ____=preganglionic fibers myelinated
SNS; gray ramus= ____= postganlionic fibers unmyelinated
postganlionic cell bodies; sympathetic chain ganglia along the spinal column
postganglionic cell bodies; collateral ganglia at a distance from spinal column
Sympatheic pregangionic neurons pass to the ____ sympathic trunk
preganglion neruons may connect to postganglionic neurons in the following ways; may synapse with ____ neurons in the ganglion it first reaches postganglionic
preganglion neruons may connect to postganglionic neurons in the following ways; may ___ or ____ to a higher or lower ganglion before synapsing with postganglionic neruons ascend or decend
preganglion neruons may connect to postganglionic neurons in the following ways; may continue, without synapsing through the sympathic trunk ganglion to a _______ ganglion where it synpases with the _____ gangion preverterbal ganglion; postganglionic
in the spinal nerve route the symathic fibers go out at the same level
in the sympathetic chain route sympathic fibers up chain and out spinal nerve
in collateral ganglion route the sympathic fibers out splanchinic nerve to collateral ganglion
structures innervated by each spinal nerve; sweat glands, arrector pili, BV to skin and skeletal muscles
thoracic and cranial plexuses supply: plexus around carotid artery to head structures
splanchnic nerves to collateral ganglia suppy Gi tract from stomach to recum, uninary and reporductive organs
each preganglionic cell synapses on many postganglionic cells divergence
mast activation due to divergence -mutiple target organs- fight or flight response explained (sym)
modified cluster of postganglionic cell bodies that release epineprine and norepinieprine into blood adrenal gland
the adrenal gland is located? cortex and medulla sits on top of kiney
structure of parasymp; the cranial outflow consists of preganlionic axons that extend from the _____ in four cranial nerves brainstem
the craninal outflow consists of four pairs of ganglia and the plexuses assoicated with the ___ nerve vagus (X) nerve
the scaral parasymp. outflow consists of ______ axons in the anterior roots of the second through fourth sacral nerves and from the pelvic aplanchnic nerve preganglionic
in parasymp; preganglionic cell bodies found in 4 cranial nerve nuclei in brainstem
in parasymp; preganglionic cell bodies found in s2 to s4 spinal cord
parasymp; ____ cell bodies very near or in the wall of the target organ in a terminal ganglia postganglionic
parasymp cranial nerve; oculomotor the ciliary ganglion in ___ orbit (focuses eye ball)
oculomotor; ciliary muscle and pupillay constrictor muscle _______ inside eyeball
parasymp; facial nerve supplies tears, salivary and nasal secretions
pyerygopalatine and submandibular ganglions facial nerve
otic ganglion supplies parotid salivary glands glossopharyngeal
many fibers supply heart, pulmonary and GI tract as far as the midpoint of the colon Vagus nerve
the parasympathic sacral nerve fibers form the pelvic splanchnic nerves
Cholinergic neurons release ACH
all cholingeric are ____ neurons preganglion ( mye)
all cholingeric are ______, ____ neurons parasym, postganglonic
excitation or inhibit depending upon receptor ___ and _____ involved subtype and organ
Cholingeric receptors are ___ membrane proteins in the _____ plasma membrane integral; postsymaptic
nicotinic and muscarinic recepotrs are two types of what cholingeric receptors
activation of ____ receptors causes excitation of postsynaptic cell nicotinic
nicotinic receptors are found on ____ and ____ of ANS cells and at NMJ dendrites and cell bodies
activation of ____ can caused either excitation or inhibition depending on the cell taht bears the receptor muscarinic
muscarinic receptors are found on _____ of all _______ effectors plasma membranes of all parasymp. effectors
in the parasymp. sacral nerve fibers, preganglionic fibers end on ______in walls of target organs in the terminal ganglia
parsymp. scaral nerves innervate ____ and ____ in colon,ureters, bladder and RP smooth muscles and glands
adrenergic neurons release ___; from _____ only NE; postganglionic sympathic
Adrenergic ____ or ____ organs depending on receptors excites or inhibits
___ lingers at the synapse until enezymatically inactived by ______ or ____ NE; MAO or COMT
substance that binds to and activates a recepor, mimicking the effect of natrual neruotransmitter or hormone agonist
is a substance that binds to and blocks a receptor, preventing a natural neurotrasnmitter or hormone from exerting its effect antagonist
____ regulates balance (tone) between symp and parasymp activity levels hypothalamus
some organs have only syp. innervation sweat glands, adrenal medulla, arrector pili, BV
examples of symp innervation organs are controlled by regulation of the "tone" of the sympathic system
the symapthic responses are long lasting due to lingering ___ in synaptic gap and release of ____ by adrenal gland; stays out in blood stream longer NE; norepinephrine
parasymp enhances the _____ activites; keeping you alive 24/7 rest and digest
these mechanisms that help conserve and restore body enegry during times of rest parasymp
SLUDD stands for salivation, lacrimation, urination, digestion, defecation
in parasymp the 3 decreases stand for decreased HR, decreased diameter or airways and diameter or pupil
when there is no escape route or no way to win paradoxical fear
paradoxical fear causes massive activation of parasymp division
paradoxical fear you have loss of control over urination and defecation
autonomic responses control center is in lower regions of brain
is major control center in brain hypothalamus
the hypothalamus inputs your emotions, visceral sensory info
the output of the hypothalamus: to nuclei in brainsteam and spinal cord
___ and ____ portions of hypothalamus controls ___ NS posterior and lateral; sympatheic
____ and ___ portions of hypothalamus controls ___NS anteior and medial; parasymp
Created by: Mollie28