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BNS 107 Week 13

Learning & Memory

Hippocampal formation Where information is stored temporarily
Retrograde amnesia losing memories that were gained prior to the surgery (usually decades before the surgery, but they can sometimes remember things in their distant past)
Confabulation when people lose their memories, they will fabricate stories and facts to make up for those missing from their memories
Declarative memory “knowing that”, something you can declare with your voice (dates, events, etc). Requires the hippocampus.
Water maze a tank of murky water from which they could escape quickly by learning the location of a platform submerged just under the water’s surface
Radial arm maze a maze that has a center platform and many “arms” coming away from the platform, rats who have a damaged hippocampus were unable to remember which arms they have been down
Extinction involves new learning, an old behavior will go extinct if it becomes unlearned and unused after long periods of time
Alzheimer’s disease A disorder characterized by progressive brain deterioration and impairment of memory and other mental abilities; the most common cause of dementia.
Hebb rule If an axon of a presynaptic neuron is active while the postsynaptic neuron is firing, the synapse between them will be strengthened, Neurons that fire together, wire together
Motor learning a complex process occurring in the brain in response to practice or experience of a certain skill resulting in changes in the central nervous system. It allows for the production of a new motor skill.
Long term potentiation (LTP) a persistent strengthening of synapses that results from the simultaneous activation of presynaptic neurons and postsynaptic neurons
Anterograde amnesia the inability to form new memories
Korsakoff’s syndrome A form of dementia in which brain deterioration is almost always caused by chronic alcoholism
Consolidation brain forms permanent representation of memory (short term memory (seconds to hours), long term memory (hours to months), and long-lasting memory (months to lifetime))
Nondeclarative memory “knowing how”, things like learned skills, you can verbally declare it, but it doesn’t make it true. The striatum is required
Place cells Cells in the hippocampus that increase their firing rate when the individual is in a specific location in the environment.
Working memory A form of short-term memory that provides a temporary “register” for information while it is being used
Associative LTP weak synapse strengthened through induction
Forgetting memories dissipate at least somewhat over time if they are not used frequently, this is how the brain clears out unnecessary information
Retrieval accessing stored memories, requires glutamate
What are the types of amnesia? Retrograde and Anterograde
Who is patient H.M and how was he important to neuroscience? He had epileptic seizures so he had his hippocampus/amygdala removed. His epilepsy was cured, but he had severe anterograde amnesia and retrograde amnesia. He could keep his nondeclarative memories, like his learned skills
What are some ideas as to how memories are stored at the molecular level?
Created by: Lee543
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