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Rubenstein Chapter 5

Dr. Seiler's Class Chapter 5-Language

QuestionAnswer
Language a system of communication through speech, a collection of sounds that a group of people understands to have the same meaning.
Literary Tradition a system of written communication
Official Language language used by the government for law, reports, and public objects such as road signs, money and stamps.
Origin of English in England German Invasion by the Angles, Jutes and Saxon in 450 BCE pushed out the Celts to northern and western parts of Britain. Then a Norman Invasion in 1066 brought French words into the language
Dialect a regional variation of a language distinguished by distinctive vocabulary, spelling and pronunciation
Standard Language a dialect that is well-established and widely recognized as the most acceptable for government, business, education and mass communication.
Differences between British and American English Vocabulary and Spelling: Native American words were added to American English (canoe, maccasin and squash) and new inventions were given different names in both areas (elevator vs. lift) Changes in spelling in American English as well (color vs colour)
Dialects in the United States East: Northern, Midland and Southern. Ex: Bucket in the South and Midlands vs. Pail in the North Pronunciation Differences: Southern dialect split words like "half" into 2 syllables "ha-af"
Isogloss word-usage boundary
Language Family a collection of languages related through a common ancestor that existed long before recorded history.
Language Branch a collection of languages related through a common ancestor that existed several thousand years ago. Differences are not as extensive or as old as with language families
Language Group a collection of languages within a branch that share a common origin in the relatively recent past and display relatively few difference in grammar and vocabulary.
Vulgar Laten spoken form of Latin
Extinct Languages languages that were once used, even in the recent past, but no longer spoken or read in daily activities by anyone in the world.
Reviving Extinct Languages Hebrew was revived when Israel was established in 1948 as one of its two official languages because the Jewish population consisted of refugees and migrants that spoke many languages and Hebrew was the one language they all spoke.
Isolated Language a language unrelated to any other and therefore not attached to any language family.
Multilingual State: Belgium Southern Belgians (Walloons) speak French while northern Belgians (Flemings) speak Flemish, a dialect of Dutch. The isogloss sharply divides the country. Belgium is divided into 2 independent regions Flanders and Wallonia each electing their own assembly
Multilingual State: Switzerland Switzerland peacefully exists w/ multiple languages, mainly because they have a decentralized government. Switzerland has 4 official languages: German, French, Italian and Romansh
Created by: Kategoriec92