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Adip/o fat
Lip/o fat
Dermat/o skin
Cutane/o skin
Phac/o lens
Opt/o eye, vision
Optic/o eye, vision
Cirrh/o yellow
Jaund/o yellow
Xanth/o yellow
Derm/o skin
Cyan/o blue
Pupil/o pupil
Core/o pupil
Albin/o white
Leuk/o white
Opthalm/o eye
Ocul/o eye
Xer/o dry
Lacrim/o tear; lacrimal gland
Squam/o scale
Scot/o darkness
Seb/o sebum, sebaceous
Irid/o iris
Presby/o old age
Dacry/o tear; lacrimal sac
Phot/o light
Rhytid/o wrinkle
Cycl/o ciliary body of the eye; cycle
Mydr/o widen, enlarge
Pil/o hair
Trich/o hair
Corne/o cornea
Conjunctiv/o conjunctiva
Onych/o nail
Ungu/o nail
Mi/o smaller; less
Glauc/o gray
Choroid/o choroid
Myc/o fungus
Dipl/o double, twofold
Blephar/o eyelid
Kerat/o horny tissue, hard, cornea
Ambly/o dull, dim
Aque/o water
Ichthy/o dry, scaly
Vitre/o vitreous body
Scler/o hardening, sclera
Melan/o black
Histi/o tissue
Erthem/o red
Erthemat/o red
Erthr/o red
Retin/o retina
Hidr/o sweat
Sudor/o sweat
Sudor/i sweat
Hist/o tissue
Anthrac/o black, coal
Mastoid/o mastoid process
Sinus/o sinus
Labrinth/o inner ear, labyrinth
Pharyng/o pharynx
Cochle/o cochlea
Pneum/o air, lung
Pneumon/o air, lung
Pleur/o pleura
Laryng/o larynx
Acous/o hearing
Audi/o hearing
Audit/o hearing
Pector/o chest
Steth/o chest
Thorac/o chest
Epiglott/o epiglottis
Spir/o breath
Adenoid/o adenoids
Phren/o diaphragm, mind
Lob/o lobe
Ox/o oxygen
Bronch/o bronchus
Bronchi/o bronchus
Tympan/o tympanic membrane
Myring/o tympanic membrane
Staped/o stapes
Orth/o straight
Hem/o blood
Coni/o dust
Ot/o ear
Aur/o ear
Auricul/o ear
Atel/o incomplete, imperfect
Alveol/o alveolus
Trache/o trachea
Nas/o nose
Rhin/o nose
Pulmon/o lungs
Tonsil/o tonsils
-metry act of measuring
-osis abnormal condition, increase
-megaly enlargement
-gram record, writing
-graph instrument for recording
-dynia pain
-plasia formation, growth
-rrhexis rupture
-ac pertaining to
-al pertaining to
-ar pertaining to
-ary pertaining to
-eal pertaining to
-ic pertaining to
-ical pertaining to
-ile pertaining to
-ory pertaining to
-ose pertaining to
-ous pertaining to
-tic pertaining to
-lysis separation, destruction, loosening
-cele hernia, swelling
-penia decrease, deficiency
-rrhagia forth
-algia pain
-stomy forming an opening
-scope instrument to view or examine
-iasis abnormal condition
-iatry medicine, treatment
-ase enzyme
-desis binding, fixation
-ia condition
-ism condition
-y condition
-trophy development, nourishment
-plasm formation, growth
-ectasis dilation, expansion
-pexy suspension, fixation
-emia blood condition
-stenosis narrowing, stricture
-lucent to shine, clear
-plasty surgical repair
-rrhea discharge, flow
-tripsy crushing
-scopy visual examination
-oma tumor
-meter instrument for measuring
-clasis to break
-emesis vomiting
-rrhage bursting
-centesis surgical puncture
-lith stone, calculus
-edema swelling
-toxic poison
-tomy incision
-ectomy excision, removal
-rrhaphy suture
-spasm involuntary contraction, twitching
-graphy process of recording
-itis inflammation
-ician specialist
-ist specialist
-malacia softening
-pathy disease
-opaque obscure
-cusis hearing
-acusis hearing
-capnia carbon dioxide
-ptysis spitting
-pnea breathing
-tome instrument to cut
-oid resembling
-logy study of
-logist specialist in the study of
-derma skin
Hetero- different
Exo- outside, outward
Eso- inward
Epi- above, upon
Eu- good, normal
Tachy- rapid
Brady- slow
Albinism A group of inherited disorders that produce a deficiency or absence of pigment in the skin, hair, and eyes, or eyes only, related to an abnormality in the production of melanin.
Androgen Generic term for an agent, usually a hormone, that stimulates the activity of the accessory male sex organs or encourages the development of male characteristics.
avascular Referring to a kind of tissue that does not have blood vessels; not receiving a sufficient supply of blood in tissues.
collagen Dense connective tissue strands, or fibers, of the tendons, the ligaments, and the fascia.
dissipated Scattered in various directions; dispersed.
ductule A very small duct.
melanin The pigment produced by melanocytes that gives color to hair, skin, and the choroid of the eye.
melanocyte A melanin-forming cell. Those of the skin that are found in the lower epidermis.
pathogens Any microorganisms capable of producing disease.
pore Minute opening, especially on an epithelial surface; the opening of the secretory duct of a sweat gland.
sebum An oily, fatty secretion of the sebaceous glands of the skin.
sebaceous Containing, or pertaining to, sebum.
squamous Plate-like, scaly, or covered with scales.
stratified Arranges in layers.
subcutaneous beneath the skin.
aqueous humor Clear, watery fluid in the anterior and posterior chambers produced by the ciliary body; the tissue fluid of the eyeball that provides nutrients and oxygen to the avascular lens and cornea and aids in maintaining the shape of the front of the eye.
binocular vision Normal vision involving the simultaneous use of both eyes.
fundus The posterior, inner part of the eye that can be directly visualized with an opthalmoscope.
intraocular pressure The internal pressure of the eye that is regulated by resistance to the flow of aqueous humor.
lens A transparent refracting medium, usually made of glass. Also, the crystalline lens of the eye.
mydriasis A pronounced or abnormal dilation of the pupil.
optic nerve The cranial nerve that transmits impulses from the retina to the cerebral cortex in the brain.
pupil Dark opening in the center of the iris that regulates the amount of light entering the eye by constricting when light increases, and dilating when light decreases.
refraction The bending of light rays as they pass through the various structures of the eye to bring the rays into focus on the retina.
rhodopsin The pigment found in the rods of the retina that adapts the eye to dim light; important in night vision.
suspensory ligament Any of a number of ligaments that help support an organ or body structure, such as the suspensory ligaments inside the eye that hold the lens in tension.
vitreous humor Clear, jelly-like substance that fills the posterior chamber. It transmits light, contributes to intraocular pressure, helps maintain the shape of the eyeball, and keeps the retina in place.
abcess A localized collection of pus in any body part, resulting from the invasion of a pyogenic bacterium.
acne An inflammatory popular and pustular eruption of the skin.
acne vulgaris An eruption, predominantly on the face, upper back, and chest, made up of comedones, cysts, papules, and pustules on an inflammatory base.
alopecia Partial or complete absence or loss of hair, especially of the head.
basal cell carcinoma Malignant tumor of the basal cell layer of the epidermis that is locally invasive but rarely metastasizes.
carbuncle Pyogenic infection of the skin, or abscess.
cellulitis Inflammation of cellular or connective tissue.
cicatrix Firm scar tissue that forms in the healing of a sore or wound.
comedo Blackhead; discolored dried sebum plugging an excretory duct of the skin.
contusion An injury in which the skin is not broken, caused by a low to the body and characterized by swelling, discoloration, and pain.
cyst (sebaceous cyst) A cyst filled with sebum from a sebaceous gland.
seborrheic dermatitis An acute or subacute form of dermatitis by dry or moist greasy scales.
discoid lupus erythematosus A chronic skin disease characterized by remissions and exacerbations of a scaling, red, macular rash.
ecchymosis Black-and-blue mark on the skin caused by hemorrhages into the skin from injury or by leakage of blood from blood vessels underneath the skin.
eczema Generic term for inflammatory condition of the skin.
Erythema Redness or inflammation of the skin or mucous membranes resulting from dilation and congestion of superficial capillaries.
exanthematous viral disease Viral infection characterized by a rash.
furuncle An abscess involving the entire hair follicle and adjacent subcutaneous tissue.
gangrene Necrosis or death of tissue, usually the result of ischemia, bacterial invasion, and subsequent putrefaction.
granuloma One of a variety of inflamed, granular-appearing tissues; a benign mass of granulation tissue.
herpes (zoster) An acute inflammatory eruption of highly painful vesicles on the trunk of the body or occasionally on the face, which mainly affects adults.
hirsutism Condition characterized by excessive growth of hair or presence of hair in unusual place, especially in women.
ichthyosis A condition in which the skin is dry and scaly, resembling fish skin.
impetigo Inflammatory skin disease characterized by isolated pustules that become crusted and rupture.
Kaposi sarcoma A vascular malignancy that is often first apparent in the skin or mucous membranes but may involve the viscera.
keloid An overgrowth of scar tissue at the site of a wound of the skin.
laceration Wound or irregular tear of the flesh.
lesion A wound, injury, or pathological change in body tissue.
nevus A pigmented skin blemish that is usually benign but may become cancerous.
pediculosis Infestation with lice.
petechia Minute or small hemorrhagic on the skin.
pruritus Itching, which may be a symptom of a process such as an allergic response.
psoriasis Chronic skin disease characterized by itchy red patches covered with silvery scales.
purpura Any of several bleeding disorders characterized by bleeding into the skin.
pustule Small elevation of skin filled with lymph or pus.
scabies Contagious skin disease transmitted by the itch mite.
shingles another term for herpes zolster.
squamous cell carcinoma A slow-growing malignant tumor of squamous epithelium.
suppuration The formation of pus.
systemic lupus erythematosus A chronic autoimmune inflammatory disease involving multiple organ systems and marked by periods of exacerbation and remission.
tinea Any fungal skin disease, frequently caused by ringworm.
ulcer (decubitus) An inflammation, sore, or ulcer in the skin over a bony prominence caused by impaired circulation in a portion of the body surface from lying in one position over a prolonged period of time.
urticaria Allergic reaction of the skin characterized by eruption of pale-red elevated patches called wheals.
vitiligo Localized loss of skin pigmentation characterized by milk-white patches
astigmatism Irregular curvature of the cornea or lens in which the light rays cannot be focused clearly on the retina.
hyperopia, hypermetropia Farsightedness, or an inability of the eye to focus on nearby objects.
myopia A condition of nearsightedness caused by the elongation of the eyeball or by an error of refraction so that parallel light rays are focused in front of the retina.
presbyopia A form of farsightedness associated with the aging process, which usually occurs between 40 and 45 years of age, in which the lens loses its elasticity and loses its ability to adjust for accommodation to near vision.
amblyopia Reduction in, or dimness of, vision, especially that in which there is no apparent pathological condition of the eye.
blepharoptosis A drooping of the upper eyelid causing skin to hang over the free border of the eyelid.
blindness The inability to see.
cataract Degenerative condition of the lens of the eye characterized by loss of transparency. A gray-white opacity can be observed within the lens behind the pupil.
chalazion A small, hard tumor on the yield resulting from obstruction and retained secretions of the tarsal glands.
corneal abrasion The rubbing off of the outer layers of the cornea.
glaucoma A disease of the eye characterized by increased intraocular pressure, excavation, and atrophy of the optic nerve; produces defects in the field of vision.
Chronic glaucoma The more common type of glaucoma, which is often bilateral.
Acute glaucoma A condition that occurs if the pupil in an eye with a narrow angle between the iris and cornea dilates markedly, causing the folded iris to block the flow of aqueous humor from the anterior chamber.
hyphema, hyphemia A hemorrhage into the anterior chamber of the eye, usually caused by a blunt injury or trauma.
hordeolum A localized, purulent, inflammatory infection of the sebaceous gland of an eyelash, caused by a bacterial infection.
macular degeneration A progressive deterioration of the macular tissue of the retina, an area important in the visualization of fine details.
nystagmus Constant, involuntary, cyclical movement of the eyeball in any direction.
retinal detachment A separation of the retina from the choroid in the back of the eye.
retinoblastoma Congenital, hereditary neoplasm developing from the retinal germ cells. The tumor grows rapidly and may invade the brain and distant sites.
Retinopathy A non-inflammatory eye disorder resulting from changes in the retinal blood vessels.
Diabetic retinopathy A disorder of retinal blood vessels. It is characterized by capillary microaneurysms, hemorrhages, exudates, and the formation of new vessels and connective tissue.
Hypertensive retinopathy retinopathy associated with hypertension, toxemia of pregnancy, or glocerulonephritis. The changes may include blood vessel alterations, hemorrhages, exudates, and retinal edema.
strabismus (various types) Failure of the eyes to gaze in the same direction sue to weakness in the ocular muscles.
Esotropia inward turning of the eye(s).
Exotropia outward turning of the eye(s).
synechia An adhesion, especially of the iris to the cornea or lens of the eye; may develop as a complication of surgery or trauma to the eye, or from glaucoma, cataracts, uveitis, or keratitis.
trachoma A chronic, infections disease of the eye caused by Chlamydia trachomatis.
biopsy (various types) Excision of a small piece of living tissue from an organ or other part of the body for microscopic examination to confirm or establish a diagnosis, estimate prognosis, or follow the course of a disease.
Aspiration biopsy removal of tissue for microscopic examination by suction through a fine needle attached to a syringe.
frozen section needle biopsy
Punch biopsy Method that removes a small cylindrical specimen for biopsy by means of a special instrument that pierces the organ directly or through the skin or a small incision in the skin.
Shave biopsy technique performed with a surgical blade or a razor blade.
Intradermal skin test A procedure used to identify suspected allergens by subcutaneously injecting the patient with small amounts of extracts of the suspected allergens and observation of the skin for a subsequent reaction.
Patch skin test The simplest type of skin test, in which a small piece or gauze or filter paper is impregnated with a minute quantity of the suspected allergy-causing substance, and is applied to the skin, usually on the forearm.
Scratch skin test type of skin test in which a small quantity of a solution containing a suspected allergen is placed on a lightly scratched area of the skin.
curettage scraping of a cavity, wound, or other surface using a spoon like cutting instrument called a curette.
debridement Removal of dead or damaged tissue from a wound or burn site to prevent infection and to facilitate healing.
Electrocautery The application of a needle or snare heated by electric current for the destruction of tissue.
Electrocoagulation Hardening of tissue by means of a high-frequency electric current from an electrocautery device.
Electrodesiccation destruction of tissue by burning with an electric spark.
Fulguration destruction of tissue by means of long high-frequency electric sparks.
escharotomy A surgical incision is an eschar to lessen constriction, as might be done following burn.
irrigation The process of washing out a body cavity out wounded area with a stream of water or other fluid.
laser surgery Surgery using a laser device.
liposuction A technique for removing subcutaneous fat tissue with a suction pump device.
autograft, homograft any tissue obtained from another part of the body and implanted at another location in the same individual.
Heterograft, xenograft – Tissue obtained from an individual of one species for transplantation to an individual of a different species.
Chemoabrasion application of chemicals to remove the surface layer of skin.
Dermabraion use of rotating brushes, sandpaper, or other abrasive materials to remove scars, lesions, and fine wrinkles from the skin.
cautery A technique used to destroy tissue by electricity, freezing, heat, or corrosive chemicals.
chemical peel Application of an acid solution to peel the top skin layers, allowing new, smoother skin with tighter cells to occupy the surface.
fluorescein angiography Procedure in which fluorescein dye is injected intravenously in order to directly visualize blood flow and detect lesions in the macular area of the retina with an opthalmoscope.
Heidelberg retinal tomogram Scanning procedure using laser technology to scan the eye to detect and diagnose disorders of the eye.
frequency doubling technology A newer screening test that checks for abnormalities in particular cells of the retina that are indicators of early glaucoma.
fundoscopy Use of an opthalmoscope to examine the innermost structures of the eye, particularly the blood vessels supplying the retina and the optic disc.
gonioscopy Examination of the angle of the anterior chamber of the eye with a gonioscope or with a contact prism lens.
ophthalmoscopy Visual examination of the interior structures of the eye using an opthalmoscope.
perimetry test Any of the various types of tests that measure the peripheral visual fields. S
slit lamp biomicroscopy Use of a slit lamp and a microscope to evaluate the conjunctive, cornea, iris, lens, and vitreous humor.
tonometry Measurement of the intraocular pressure of the eye.
visual acuity test Standard test of visual acuity in which a person is asked to read letters and numbers on a chart 20 feet away with the use of the Snellen chart.
visual field test A test that measures the range of peripheral vision.
Extracapular surgery The removal of the majority of the lens, followed by the insertion of an intraocular lens transplant.
Phacoemulsification Removal of the lens by ultrasonic vibrations that break the lens into tiny particles, which are then suctioned out of the eye.
corneal transplant The surgical transplantation of a donor cornea into the eye of a recipient.
laser photocoagulation Surgical procedure using an argon laser to stimulate coagulation of tissue and blood vessels in the interior of the eye.
radial keratotomy Surgical procedure used to decrease nearsightedness.
scleral buckling Surgical procedure to repair retinal detachment. Involves placing a silicon implant in conjunction with a belt-like device around the sclera to bring the choroid in contact with the retina.
trabeculectomy Surgical removal of a section of corneoscleral tissue to increase the outflow of aqueous humor in patients with severe glaucoma.
trabeculoplasty Surgical creation of a permanent fistula that is used to drain the outflow of aqueous humor in patients with severe glaucoma. S
vitrectomy Procedure in which the vitreous humor is drained out of the eye chamber and replaced with saline or silicone oil.
orthoptic training Eye muscle exercises prescribed to correct strabismus and restore the normal coordination of the eyes.
antibacterials Agents that eliminate epidermal infections.
antimycotics Substances that kill fungi or inhibit their growth or reproduction.
antipruritics Substances commonly used as ointments, creams, or lotions to prevent or relieve itching.
antiseptics Topically applied agents that inhibit the growth and reproduction of microorganisms and destroy bacteria, thus preventing the development of infections in cuts, scratches, and surgical incisions.
astringents Topical agents that cause contraction of tissue, arrest of secretions, or control of bleeding.
corticosteroids Hormonelike preparations used as anti-inflammatory agents.
keratolytics Substances that promote dissolution or peeling of the horny layer of the epidermis.
parasiticides Drugs applied topically to kill parasites that infest the skin.
protectives Substance that function by covering, cooling, drying, or soothing inflamed skin.
retinoids Natural compounds and synthetic derivatives of retinol that exhibit vitamin A activity.
antibiotics Agents that inhibit the growth of microorganisms.
beta-adrenergics Agents that lower intraocular pressure by reducing the production of aqueous humor; used to treat glaucoma.
carbonic anhydrase inhibitors Drugs that decrease the production of aqueous humor by blocking the enzyme carbonic anhydrase.
cycloplegics Agents that paralyze the ciliary muscles to dilate the pupils.
miotics Agents that constrict the pupils.
NSAIDs Drugs used topically to treat inflammation that results from eye surgery, or allergic reactions such as hay fever.
alveoli Thin-walled microscopic air sacs in the lungs that exchange gases.
apex The top, the end, or the tip of a structure, such as the apex of the lungs or the apex of the heart.
bifurcate Divide in two branches or divisions; become forked.
bronchial tree Branched airways of the bronchi and bronchioles that lead from the trachea to the microscopic airways in the lungs.
ciliated epithelium Epithelial tissue with hair like processes on the surface.
erythrocytes Red blood cells; they transport oxygen and carbon dioxide.
eustachian tubes The tubes that connect the middle ear and the nasopharynx; they are normally closed but open during yawning, chewing, and swallowing to allow equalization of the air pressure in the middle ear with atmospheric pressure.
glottis A slit-like opening through which air passes between the vocal cords.
hemoglobin Component of RBCs that transports oxygen to the cells of the body.
homeostasis A relative constancy or equilibrium in the internal environment of the body.
inhalation process of breathing in
inspiration process of breathing in
olfactory nerves Nerves that transmit signals controlling the sense of smell.
patent Wide open and unblocked, such as a patent airway.
phrenic nerve Nerve that extends membranes that enclose the lungs.
pleural membranes Double-folded membranes that enclose the lungs.
uvula small, soft structure suspended from the soft palate.
cerebellum The part of the brain that functions to coordinate body movements and maintain posture and balance.
cerebral cortex The part of the brain that contains the auditory center in the temporal lobe, where sound reception and interpretation take place.
ciliated epithelium Any epithelial tissue that projects small hair-like processes from its surface, such as that found in portions of the respiratory tract.
cochlea Coiled tubular structure of the inner ear that contains the organ of Corti.
hair cells Hearing receptors located in the organ of Corti.
labyrinth The inner ear; contains structures and liquids that relay sound waves to the brain and help to maintain balance.
nasal cavity One of two cavities with a mucous membrane lining that open to the nose anteriorly and the nasopharynx posteriorly.
olfactory Relating to the sense of smell.
ossicles The small bones of the middle ear: the incus, the malleus, and the stapes.
patent Open and unblocked.
turbinates Conchae bones; three S-shaped bones in the nasal cavity.
utricle sac-like structure in the inner ear that is associated with maintaining balance.
adult respiratory distress syndrome A form of pulmonary edema in which dyspnea and tachypnea are followed by progressive hypoxemia.
atelectasis A collapsed or airless condition of the lung or portion of the lung characterized by the collapse of the alveoli, preventing the respiratory exchange of carbon dioxide and oxygen.
consolidation Process of becoming solid, as when the lungs become firm and inelastic from pneumonia.
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease Any pathological process with chronic obstruction of the bronchial tubes and lungs.
emphysema Chronic condition characterized by the destruction of the alveolar walls, which leads to permanently inflated alveolar air spaces.
hyaline membrane disease Atelectasis in the newborn, marked by cyanosis and dyspnea.
asbestosis lung disease resulting from inhalation of asbestos particles.
chalicosis Lung disease resulting from the inhalation of dust produced by stone cutting.
silicosis Lung disease resulting from the inhalation of quartz dust.
pulmonary abscess Localized collection of pus in the lungs.
pulmonary cancer A malignant tumor that frequently originates in the bronchi.
pulmonary edema Accumulation of fluid in the alveoli and interstitial spaces.
pulmonary embolus Blood clot or other material that travels through the bloodstream and lodges in the pulmonary vessels.
tuberculosis Infectious disease caused by the invasion of mycobacterium tuberculosis into the lungs, which produces tubercles that usually remain dormant and asymptomatic until the immune system becomes impaired and then the active disease may occur.
asthma A respiratory disorder characterized by recurring episodes of paroxysmal dyspnea, wheezing on expiration/inspiration by constriction of the bronchi, coughing, and viscous mucoid bronchial secretions.
reactive airway disease Recurring episodes of paroxymal dyspnea and wheezing caused by constriction of the bronchi, coughing, and viscous mucoid bronchial secretions.
Open pneumothorax A “sucking wound” caused by an injury such as a bullet or stab wound that creates an opening in the chest wall allowing air to enter the pleural cavity, resulting in immediate collapse of the lung on the affected side.
Spontaneous pneumothorax caused by an opening on the surface of the lung from the rupture of lesions as seen with lung abscess, carcinoma, emphysema, tuberculosis, or the spontaneous tear of the lung tissue.
Tension pneumothorax The most serious form of pneumothorax, which occurs when air enter the pleural cavity but is unable to escape.
pleural effusion passage of fluid into the pleural cavity.
Empyema pus in the pleural cavity.
Hemothroax blood in the pleural cavity.
Hydrothorax A non-inflammatory collection of fluid in the pleural cavity that may cause dyspnea.
pleurisy Inflammation of the pleural membranes that causes them to rub together particularly during inspiration, producing severe, sharp pain and friction rub that can be heard or felt.
adventitious breath sounds abnormal breath sounds heard on auscultation to the chest.
pleural friction rub Grating sound made by the motion of the pleural surfaces rubbing together.
rales (crackles) Abnormal crackling sounds heard on auscultation of the chest during inspiration.
stridor A high-pitched, harsh sound heard during respiration associated with obstruction of the larynx or bronchus; found in conditions such as croup.
rhonchus A wheezing, snoring, or squeaking sound heard during aucsultation of the chest of a person with partial airway obstruction.
wheeze Continuous musical sound heard during expiration or inspiration produced by air passing through a partially obstructed airway.
asphyxia A condition caused by insufficient intake of oxygen.
hyperventilation Increased ventilation that results in high oxygen levels and decreased carbon dioxide levels.
paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea Sudden, periodic attacks of shortness of breath that occur at night and awaken the person.
mucus The viscous, slippery secretions of mucous membranes and glands containing mucin, white blood cells, water, inorganic salts, and exfoliated cells.
phlegm Tick mucus secreted by the tissues lining the airways of the lungs.
sputum Material coughed up from the lungs and expectorated through the mouth.
anthrax A disease affecting primarily farm animals, caused by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis.
clubbing Condition that affects the fingers and town where soft tissue changes to firm fibrotic enlargement at the end of the digits, and lateral and longitudinal curvature of the nails occurs.
cystic fibrosis Genetic disorder that produces a defect in the exocrine glands, causing abnormally thick, tenacious mucus. The glands most often affected are those of the respiratory system and the pancreas.
mediastinal shift The effects of tension that increases in the pleural space, causing pressure on the heart and great vessels and pushing them away from the affected side of the chest.
respiratory acidosis This disorder occurs when there are above-normal levels of carbon dioxide in the body, which in turn causes a decrease in the pH of blood and body fluids.
respiratory alkalosis This disorder occurs when a person hyperventilates, which lowers the carbon dioxide level in the body and causes an increase in the pH of blood and body fluids.
sudden infant death syndrome Unexpected and unexplained death of a healthy infant that typically occurs when the child is sleeping, usually between the ages of 2 weeks and 1 year.
anacusis Total deafness.
acoustic neuroma Benign tumor of the 8th cranial nerve in the brain.
cholesteatoma Cyst-like sac containing epithelial cells and cholesterol in the middle ear and mastoid area.
Conductive hearing loss Hearing loss caused by a breakdown in the transmission of sound waves through the external ear and the middle ear.
Presbycusis normal loss of hearing associated with aging.
Sensorineural hearing loss Hearing loss caused by disease or trauma to the sensory or neural components of the inner ear.
labyrinthitis Inflammation of the inner ear that may be viral or bacterial in nature.
mastoiditis Infection of the mastoid area that usually results from the spreading of a middle ear infection.
Meniere disease Chronic inner ear disease in which there is an over accumulation of fluid in the labyrinth.
otitis externa Infection of the external auditory canal from the growth of bacteria or fungi.
otitis media Infection or inflammation of the middle ear.
Serous otitis media non-infectious inflammation of the middle ear with accumulation of serum.
Suppurative otitis media Inflammation of the middle ear with pus formation.
otosclerosis Hereditary disorder of bone metabolism where abnormal bone develops at the anterior end of the oval window, resulting in fixation of the stapes and a conductive hearing loss.
tinnitus subjective, chronic ringing or other distressing noise in the ears or head.
tympanic membrane perforation Rupture of the eardrum caused by severe middle ear infections, direct trauma, or increased environmental pressure of barotraumas, as with deep sea diving.
vertigo Sensation of spinning of oneself or of external objects spinning around oneself; balance and equilibrium are affected and nausea is often present.
anosmia Loss of the sense of smell; the ability to taste food and liquids is also impaired or lost.
coryza Inflammation of the nasal mucous membranes.
croup Acute respiratory syndrome of childhood characterized by a barking cough, suffocative and difficult breathing, stridor, and laryngeal spasm.
deviated septum A shift of the nasal septum away from the midline.
diphtheria Acute, contagious infection marked by the formation of a pseudomembrane in the pharynx and respiratory tract.
epiglottitis severe, life-threatening infection of the epiglottis and surrounding are that occurs most often in children between 2 and 12 years of age.
epistaxis nosebleed
influenza Acute, contagious respiratory infection characterized by the sudden onset of fever, chills, headache, and myalgia.
laryngitis Inflammation of the mucous membranes lining the larynx and edema of the vocal cord with resulting hoarseness or loss of voice, cough, and dysphagia.
nasal polyposis Condition of multiple polyps in the nose.
peritonsillar abscess An infection of tissue between the tonsil and the pharynx, usually associated with tonsillitis.
pertussis Acute bacterial infection characterized by a “whoop”-sounding cough that affect the pharynx, larynx, and trachea.
sinusitis Inflammation of one or more paranasal sinuses caused by a virus, bacteria or allergy.
sleep apnea Intermittent short period of cessation of breathing followed by snorting and gasping during sleep.
thrush Yeast infection caused by Candida albicans.
tonsillitis Infection or inflammation of a tonsil.
tracheoesophageal fistula Congenital defect in which there is an abnormal tube-like passage between the trachea and esophagus resulting in the passage of food from the esophagus into the respirator tract.
upper respiratory infection chest x-ray Almost any infectious disease process involving the nasal passages, pharynx, and bronchi.
lung scan The use of radioactive substance or radiopharmaceuticals to image the lungs.
pulmonary angiography Radiography of the blood vessels of the lungs after injection of a contrast medium.
Mantoux test Purified protein derivative solution of Myobacterium tuberculosis is injected intradermally. A raised, red skin reaction after 48 to 72 hours confirms prior or present infection with tuberculosis.
Tine test A four-pronged applicator that contains PPD solution is used to puncture the skin. A raised, red skin reaction is suggestive of tuberculosis.
arterial blood gas A test that measures the oxygen and carbon dioxide in arterial blood by various methods to assess the adequacy of ventilation and oxygenation and the acid-base status.
culture & sensitivity Laboratory test that detects and identifies pathogenic bacteria and determines the appropriate antibiotic treatment.
sweat test Analysis of a sweat sample to determine its chloride concentration; high levels are seen in children with cystic fibrosis.
auscultation Use of a stethoscope to listen to sounds within the body, especially in the chest, neck, and abdomen.
intubation Passage of a tube into a body aperture, specifically the insertion of a breathing tube through the mouth or nose into the trachea to maintain an airway or for the delivery of anesthetic gases and oxygen or both
lung biopsy Excision of a small piece of lung tissue for microscopic examination to confirm or establish a diagnosis.
mechanical ventilation Use of a device referred to as a mechanical ventilator, which provides assisted breathing to the patient.
pulmonary function test Any of several different tests used to evaluate the condition of the respiratory system. Measures of expiratory flow and lung volume capacities are obtained.
hyperbaric oxygenation The administration of oxygen at greater-than-normal atmospheric pressure. The procedure is performed in specially designed chambers that permit the delivery of 100% oxygen at atmospheric pressure that is three times the normal level.
nebulized mist treatments Use of a device for producing a fine spray to deliver medication directly into the lungs.
postural drainage The use of body positioning to assist in the removal of secretions from specific lobes of the lung, bronchi, or lung cavities.
audiometry Test that measures hearing acuity of various sound frequencies.
polysomnography Continuous measurement and recording of physiological activity during sleep.
rapid group A strep test Immunologic test performed on a throat culture swab to detect the presence of group A streptococci in the throat.
Rinne test Hearing acuity test that is performed with a vibrating tuning fork placed on the mastoid process and then in front of the external auditory canal to test bone and air conduction.
throat culture Test used to determine the presence of pathogenic bacteria, such as streptococci in the throat.
tympanometry Test that measures the compliance of the tympanic membrane and differentiates problems in the middle ear.
Weber test Hearing acuity test that is performed with a vibrating tuning fork placed on the center of the forehead.
uvulectomy Surgical removal of the uvula to improve symptoms of snoring.
continuous positive airway pressure A method of non-invasive ventilation assisted by a flow of air delivered at a constant pressure throughout the respiratory cycle.
ear lavage Irrigation of the external auditory canal, commonly performed to remove excessive cerumen buildup or to remove a foreign object.
hearing aid A small device that amplifies sound to provide more precise perception and interpretation of words communicated to the individual with a hearing loss.
antibiotics Drugs that combat bacterial infection and have the ability to inhibit or kill foreign organisms with the body.
anticoagulants Drugs used to inhibit blood clotting, and to treat a serious condition called pulmonary embolism.
antifungals Drugs used to treat fungal infections.
antismoking agents Drugs that supply decreasing amounts of nicotine to help the cessation of smoking.
antituberculars Drugs that inhibit the spread or progress of tuberculosis in the body.
Antitussives Drugs that prevent or relieve coughing.
bronchodilators Drugs used to expand the opening of the passages into the lungs, relaxing the smooth muscle of the bronchi, thereby increasing flow.
corticosteroids Hormonal agents that reduce tissue edema and inflammation associated with chronic lung disease.
expectorants Agents that promote the clearance of mucus from the respiratory tract.
mucolytics A group of agents that liquefy sputum or reduce its viscosity so it can be coughed up more easily.
antihistamines Drugs that block histamine receptors in the nose and throat and dry up secretions, decrease itching, and reduce swelling of edematous mucous membranes.
decongestants Agents that decrease swelling of mucous membranes, alleviate nasal stuffiness, allow secretions to drain, and help to unclog the Eustachian tube.
mydriatics Drugs that dilate the pupil and paralyze the muscles of accommodation of the iris; used to prepare the eye for internal examination and the treat inflammatory condition of the iris.
Created by: dmg