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Chabner, Language of Medicine 12th Ed, Chapter 02 - All

ana- up; apart; backward; again; anew
cata- down
epi- above; upon; on
hypo- deficient; below; under; less than normal
inter- between
intra- within; into
meta- change; beyond
-eal pertaining to
-iac pertaining to
-ior pertaining to
-ism process; condition
-ose full of; pertaining to; sugar
-plasm formation; structure
-some body
-type classification; picture
abdomin/o abdomen
adip/o fat
anter/o front
cervic/o neck; cervix (neck of uterus)
chondr/o cartilage
chrom/o colour
coccyg/o coccyx (tailbone)
crani/o skull
cyt/o cell
dist/o far; distant
dors/o back (of body)
hist/o tissue
ili/o ilium (large broad bone forming upper part of each half of pelvis)
inguin/o groin
kary/o nucleus
later/o side
lumb/o lower back; loin
medi/o middle
nucle/o nucleus
pelv/i pelvis; hip region
poster/o back (of body); behind
proxim/o near; beside; abnormal; apart from; along the side of
sacr/o sacrum
sarc/o flesh
spin/o spine (backbone)
thel/o nipple
theli/o nipple
thorac/o chest
trache/o trachea (windpipe)
umbilic/o umbilicus (navel)
ventr/o belly side of body
vertebr/o vertebra (backbone)
viscer/o internal organs
abdomen part of body above the pelvis and below the diapragm
abdominal cavity space between chest and pelvis. Contains stomach, small and large intestines, bladder, rectum, urethra, ureters, (females) uterus and vagina
adipose tissue collection of cells used for the storage of fat
anabolism process of building larger proteins from amino acids
anterior front surface of body (ventral)
axial plane horizontal plane (cross-sectional) dividing body into upper and lower parts (also transverse)
cartilage flexible connective tissue often attached to bones and joints. Also found in external ear, nose, and surrounding trachea
catabolism breakdown of complex molecules (sugar/fat) into glucose, amino acids, and fatty acids.
caudal below another structure; pertaining to lower portion of body (also inferior)
cell fundamental unit of all living things
cell membrane semi-permeable, multi-layered structure surrounding and protecting the cell
cephalic above another structure (also superior); pertaining to head
chromosome rod-shaped structure in the nucleus that contain regions of DNA called genes.
circulatory system heart, blood vessels (arteries, veins, capillaries), lymphatic vessels and nodes, spleen, thymus gland
coccygeal region of the coccyx (tailbone)
coccyx tailbone
connective tissue examples are adipose (fat) tissue, cartilage, bone, and blood.
coronal plane vertical plane dividing body into anterior and posterior regions
cranial cavity space in teh head containing the brain and surrounded by the skull
craniotomy surgical opening into the skull
cytoplasm all the material outside the nucleus but inside the cell membrane
deep away from the surface
diaphragm muscle separating the abdominal and thoracic cavities. Used for breathing.
digestive system mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, intestines, liver, gallblader, pancreas
disc pad of cartilage between vertebrae
distal far from point of attachment to the trunk or far from beginning of a structure.
DNA deoxyribonucleic acid - molecule that carries genetic information for development and functioning of organism
dorsal back surface of the body (also posterior)
endocrine system thyroid gland, pituitary gland, sex glands, adrenal glands, pancreas, parathyroid glands
endoplasmic reticulum Manufactures cell proteins using anabolism
epigastric region middle upper region above the stomach
epinephrine another term for adrenaline, a hormone secreted by the adrenal glands
epithelial cells skin cells that cover the outside of the body and line the internal surfaces of organs.
epithelial tissue all tissue that covers the outside of the body and lines the inner surface of internal organs
fat cell contain large empty spaces to store fat.
frontal plane vertical plane dividing body into anterior and posterior regions
genes regions of DNA within each chromosome
histologist specialist in the study of tissues
histology the study of tissues
hypochrondriac regions right and left upper regions beneath the ribs
hypogastric region middle lower region below the umbilical region
iliac groin
iliac regions right and left lower regions near the groin (inguinal regions)
inferior below another structure; pertaining to lower portion of body (also caudal)
inguinal regions right and left lower regions near the groin (iliac regions)
intervertebral between vertebrae
karyotype a photograph of an individual's chromosomes, arranged by size, shape, and number.
laryngitis inflammation of the larynx, usually resulting in an inability to speak
larynx voice box, located above the trachea
lateral pertaining to the side
lateral plane vertical plane dividing body into right and left (also sagittal)
lumbar regions right and left middle regions near the waist
lumbar spine loin (waist) region (vertebrae L1 to L5)
lumbosacral combination of lumbar and sacral regions (vertebrae L1 to S5)
medial pertaining to the middle OR near medial plane of the body
mediastinum (subset of thoracic cavity) space outside of and between the lungs.
metabolism catabolism + anabolism. The total chemical processes within a cell.
midsagittal plane vertical plane dividing body into equal left and right halves
mitochondria organelle in cells generating most of energy needed for cells biochemical reactions.
muscle cell fibers can contract and relax. Long and slender.
muscle tissue muscle cells working together to provide contractions. Divided into voluntary and involuntary, which includes cardiac muscle.
musculoskeletal system muscles, bones, and joints.
nerve cell fibrous extension that can carry impules. Long.
nerve tissue uses nerve cells to conduct impulses and signals throughout the body
nervous system brain, spinal cord, nerves, collection of nerves
nucleic pertaining to the nucleus
nucleus Controls operation of cell. Directs cell division.
organs different types of tissue combine to form an organ
pelvic cavity space below the abdomen. Contains portions of small and large intestine, bladder, rectum, urethra, ureters, (females) uterus and vagina
peritoneum double-folded membrane surrounding the abdominal cavity. Attaches abdominal viscera to muscles and provides protection.
pharyngeal pertaining to the pharynx
pharynx throat. Serves as passage for both food (mouth to esophagus) and air (nose to trachea)
pituitary gland endocrine gland at the base of the brain.
pleura double membrane that surrounds and protects the lungs
pleural cavity (subset of thoracic cavity) space surrounding each lung.
posterior back surface of the body (also dorsal)
prone lying on the belly (face down, palms down)
proximal near the point of attachment to the trunk or near the beginning of a structure
sacrum shield-shaped bony structures located at base of lumbar vertebrae and connected to pelvis
sagittal (lateral) plane vertical plane dividing body into left and right sides
sagittal plane vertical plan dividing body into right and left (also lateral)
sarcoma tumor of connective or other non-epithelial tissue
skin and sense organs skin, hair, nails, sweat glands, sebaceous glands, eyes, ears, nose, tongue.
spinal cavity space within the spinal column. Contains: spinal cord.
spinal column bone tissue surrounding the spinal cavity
spinal cord cylindrical bundle of nerve tissue found in spinal cavity
superficial on the surface
superior above another structure (also cephalic)
supine lying on the back (face up, palms up)
system group of organs working together to perform complex functions
thoracic cavity space in the chest. Contains: lung, heart, esophagus, trachea, bronchial tubes, thymus glad, aorta
thoracotomy surgical incision into the chest wall
thyroid gland endocrine gland that surrounds trachea in the neck.
tissue group of similar cells working together to do a specific task
trachea windpipe. Tube leading from throat and larynx to bronchial tubes.
tracheal pertaining to the trachea
transverse plane horizontal plane (cross-sectional) dividing body into upper and lower parts (also axial)
types of cell muscle, epithelial, nerve, fat
umbilical region central region near the navel
ureter tube leading from kidney to the urinary bladder
urethra tube from the urinary bladder to the outside
urinary system kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, urethra
uterus organ that holds the embryo or fetus as it develops.
ventral front surface of body (anterior)
vertebra single backbone
vertebrae multiple backbones
vertebral pertaining to backbones
viscera internal organs in the main cavities of the body, especially in the abdomen.
visceral pertaining to viscera
Created by: anotherstudent
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