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BNS 107 Week 11


Visible Spectrum The visible part of the electromagnetic spectrum accounts for only 1/70 of the frequency range. Most of the frequencies are not useful for producing images; for instance, AM, FM, and analog television waves pass right through objects.
Cornea transparent front part of the eye that covers the iris, pupil, and anterior chamber.
Pupil is not a real structure, but simply a hole in the iris muscle; it looks black because light that enters your eye doesn’t come out.
Bipolar cells released from inhibition and they stimulate the ganglion cells
Amacrine cells Amacrine cells are interneurons in the retina. Amacrine cells are responsible for 70% of input to retinal ganglion cells.
Fovea A 1.5-mm-wide area in the middle of the retina in which cones are most concentrated and visual acuity and color discrimination are greatest. Gives you the most detailed vision
What are the two retinal photoreceptors? Rods and cones
Rods help to see in dark/low light
Cones normal or bright light conditions and color vision
Rhodopsin The photopigment in rods that is sensitive to all wavelengths of visible light.
visual acuity The ability to distinguish visual details
retinal disparity a discrepancy in the location of an object’s image on the two retinas
lateral geniculate nucleus The part of the brain that causes what you see in your right field of vision to affect the left side of your brain and vise versa.
trichromatic theory of color vision The hypothesis that three color processes account for all the colors we are able to distinguish.
Color blindness Also called color vision deficiency; one or more color-sensitive cones is functionally impaired or absent.
layers of cells that make up the retina ganglion cells, bipolar cells, receptors (rods/cones)
Parvocellular ganglion cells (ventral) located in the fovea, Small, color-opponent circular receptive fields, Discrimination of fine detail and color
Object agnosia Impairment of the ability to recognize objects visually
Prosopagnosia or face agnosia The inability to visually recognize familiar faces
Blindsight The ability of cortically blind individuals to respond to visual stimuli that are outside conscious awareness
movement agnosia Impaired ability to perceive movement
adequate stimulus The energy form for which a receptor is specialized
lens refracts incoming light to focus it on the retina
retina The structure at the rear of the eye, which is made up of light-sensitive receptor cells and the neural cells that are connected to them. Images are reverted on the retina.
ganglion cells a type of neuron located near the inner surface (the ganglion cell layer) of the retina of the eye. It receives visual information from photoreceptors
horizontal cells Horizontal cells play a role in visual processing within the retina. They help improve the clarity and sensitivity of visual information as it is transmitted from photoreceptor cells to the optic nerve.
optic nerve nerve that transmits visual information from the retina to the brain.
Iodopsin A group of three photopigments found in cones; one form is sensitive to red light, one is sensitive to green light, and one is sensitive to bluish-violet light.
optic chiasm The cross that happens in the brain, so that when we see objects on our right, it located in the left side of the brain and vice versa
visual cortex Part of each occipital lobe where visual information is processed
opponent process theory of color vision A color vision theory that attempts to explain color vision in terms of opposing neural processes.
retinotopic map A map of the retina in the visual cortex, which results from adjacent receptors in the retina activating adjacent cells in the visual cortex.
magnocellular ganglion cells (dorsal) have large circular receptive fields that are brightness opponents and respond rapidly but only briefly to stimulation. As a result, the magnocellular system is specialized for brightness contrast and for movement.
Fusiform face area (FFA) A part of the inferior temporal lobe important in face identification.
color agnosia the loss of the ability to perceive colors due to brain damage
nearsighted only able to see things that are close to the eye, if they are too far it gets blurry
farsighted only able to see things that are far away, when things are too close it is hard to see them
In addition to visible light, what other forms of energy make up the electromagnetic spectrum? gamma rays, x-rays, UV rays, visible light, infrared rays
Where in the eye are the rod and cone photoreceptors located? In the retina
What are the two major forms of color blindness? Dichromacy (missing 1 cone type), monochromacy (missing 2 cone types), and Achromatopsia (missing all cone types which is very rare).
Created by: Lee543
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