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BNS 107 Week 10

Hearing and Language

Receptor Cell a cell/neuron that responds to a particular form of energy, the intensity and pattern of information makes information meaningful
Sensation The acquisition of sensory information.
Cochlea The snail-shaped structure where the auditory stimulus is converted into neural impulses, it contains thousands of moving parts and it has liquid inside of it
Frequency measured in hertz (Hz), the number of waves per second
Pure tones have only one frequency, it does not fluctuate beyond that frequency
Outer ear made up of the pinna and the external auditory canal, it filters sound and amplifies it by funneling it from the larger pinna into the smaller auditory canal. It also selects for sounds in front, while excluding irrelevant sounds around you.
Middle ear made up of the tympanic membrane, tensor tympani, ossicles (hammer, anvil, stirrup), and the eustachian tube
Tympanic membrane (eardrum) a very thin membrane stretched across the end of the auditory canal; its vibrations transmit sound energy to the three middle ear bones (or ossicles)
Oval window a thin, flexible membrane on the face of the vestibular canal
Helicotrema allows the pressure waves to travel through the cochlear fluid (called endolymph) into the tympanic canal more easily
Basilar membrane The membrane in the cochlea that separates the cochlear canal from the tympanic canal, and where the organ of Corti is located. The base picks up on high frequencies and is much more rigid, the apex picks up on low frequencies and it is softer.
Inner hair cells receive 90%–95% of the auditory neurons, and they provide most of the information about auditory stimulation
Outer hair cells increase the cochlea’s sensitivity both by amplifying its output and by sharpening the frequency tuning at the location of peak vibration
Auditory cortex (temporal lobe) receives sound information from the ears, lies on the superior (uppermost) gyrus of the temporal lobe, mostly hidden from view within the lateral fissure. (technically called the primary auditory cortex)
Ventral stream (“what”) The visual processing pathway that extends into the temporal lobes; it is especially concerned with the identification of objects. Stays mainly in the temporal lobes, mainly made up of secondary auditory cortical areas.
Tonotopic map each successive area responds to successively higher frequencies
Binaural using both ears
What are the different binaural cues? difference in intensity, difference in time of arrival, and phase difference
Difference in intensity high frequencies and sound shadows
difference in time of arrival low frequencies and sound delays
Broca’s area The area anterior to the precentral gyrus (motor cortex) that sends output to the facial motor area to produce speech and also provides grammatical structure to language
Alexia The inability to read
Phonological hypothesis individuals with dyslexia have impairment in processing, storing, and/or retrieving phonemes.
Language acquisition device A part of the brain hypothesized to be dedicated to learning and controlling language
Adequate stimulus the energy form for which the receptor is specialized
Perception The interpretation of sensory information
Intensity or amplitude of sound measured in millivolts (mV) and it is measured from peak to peak of each wave
Complex sounds a mix of several different frequencies
Pinna The outer flap that graces the side of your head
Agraphia the inability to write
Ossicles tiny bones that operate in lever fashion to transfer vibration from the tympanic membrane to the cochlea. The three bones are known as the hammer, anvil, and stirrup
Round window Located at the end of the tympanic canal, it is a thin membrane that flexes outward with each sound wave and allows fluid to move
Organ of Corti the sound-analyzing structure that rests on the basilar membrane, it consists of four rows of specialized cells called hair cells, their supporting cells, and the tectorial membrane above the hair cells
Tectorial membrane A shelf-like membrane overlying the hair cells and the basilar membrane in the cochlea
Dorsal stream (“where”) goes to the parietal lobes and then to the frontal lobes
Place theory A theory that states that the frequency of a sound is identified by the location of maximal vibration on the basilar membrane and which neurons are firing most
Frequency-place theory The hypothesis that frequency following individual neurons accounts for the discrimination of frequencies up to about 200 Hz, and higher frequencies are represented by the place of greatest activity on the basilar membrane
Aphasia language impairment caused by damage to the brain
Broca's aphasia non-fluency, anomia, inarticulate, agrammatic
Wernicke's aphasia fluent and articulate, but means nothing (word salad), unable to understand language in written or spoken forms
Wernicke’s area (planum temporale) an association area that interprets language input arriving from the nearby auditory and visual areas
Dyslexia a reading impairment
Phonemes small units of speech sound that distinguish one word from another
Prosody the use of intonation, emphasis, and rhythm to convey meaning in speech
Created by: Lee543
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