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Ch.16.S+M Systems

Sensory, Motor, and Integrative Systems

Definition of sensation. Conscious or subconscious awareness of changes in external or internal environment.
Definition of perception. Conscious awareness and interpretation of sensations and it is a function of the cerebral cortex (specific)
Types of sensory receptors (based on structure) and what are used to sense. Free nerve ending (bare dendrites that pick up pain, temp, tickle, itch and lite touch). Encapsulated (capsule makes it more sensitive and specific. Deep touch, vibration, and pressure).
Locations of receptors. Intero (internal), extero (external), and proprioceptor (joints)
Types of stimulus/correlating receptor. Chemical/chemoreceptor, mechanial/mechanoreceptor, pressure/baroreceptor, pain/nociceptor, Temperature/thermoreceptor
Somatic sensory pathways/tracts in white matter of spinal column. What they transmit. Lateral spinothalamic tract (pain and temp).Posterior spinocerebellar and anterior spinocerebellar/spinothalamic (help cerebellum with function). Posterior columns (fine touch, proprioception, viration,and steriognosis/I.D. object with eyes closed).
Somatic motor pathways from brain to effector (3). Precentral gyrus of cortex to 1)brain stem to lower motor neuron or 2)basal ganglia to brain stem (cranial nerves) or 3)lower motor neurons.
What is the integrative function of the cerebrum? Emotional response, sleep, wakefulness, learning, and memory.
Describe the 2 components of sleep. 1)Non rapid eye movement (met usually in just under 1 hr. Where most sleep walking and short, tiny dream pieces occur.2) REM (3 to 5 episodes in a normal 8 hour sleep cycle = ~ 100 minutes. Less as you age. Time of long and vivid dreams.)
Bad dreams may be the result of what vitamin deficiency? B-5
4 kinds of somatic sensations tactile(touch, pressure, vibration, itch, and tickle), thermal (cold and warm), pain(fast and slow), and proprioception.
Types of tactile sensations (5). Fast or slow? Why? Fast sensations move along myelinated A fibers and may include touch, pressure, and vibration. Slow sensations move along unmyelinated C fibers and may include itch and tickle.
Two fast adapting receptors of touch. Meissner corpuscles (encapsulated)(fine touch of hairless skin-soles,palms) and Hair root plexuses (free dendrites)(wrapped around hair and detect hair mvmt such as something crawling on you).
Two slow adapting receptors of touch. Merkel discs (fine touch with flattened free nerve endings in epidermis) and Ruffini corpuscles (encapsulated deep within dermis and in tendons and ligaments that monitor stretch)
Type of pressure receptor. Pacinian corpuscle (encapsulated, fast adapting, widely distributed)
What is a capsule of a encapsulated receptor made of? Mult-layered connective tissue.
How does one sense vibration? Meissners (fine touch of hairless skin)(lower-frequency) and Pascinian (pressure)(higher-frequency)
How does one sense itch? Free nerve endings are stimulated by chemicals, such as the vasodilator bradykinin.
How does one feel tickle? It is a cerebellum response to someone touching you and comes from free nerve endings and pacinian corpuscle (pressure).
What does it take to get a thermal response? Involving a diameter of ~1mm a nerve ending will pick up a temp. Anything <5 or >118F will stimulate pain receptors.
What type of receptors pick up pain? Nociceptors- free nerve endings in every tissue except brain. Very little adaptation
Describe the 2 types of pain. FAST(acute, sharp, Type A, usually superficial).SLOW(chronic, burning, aching, throbbing, Type C, usually deep).
Perception of body movement. Kinesthia.
2 types of proprioceptors. Muscle spindles (slow adapting-in skeletal muscle that monitor length/stretch. Will cause contraction if too much, setting muscle tone. ) Tendon Organs (found at junction of muscle and tendon and activated by tension.)
What type of slow pain is related to slow organ pain? Refered pain (organ or deep tissue refering to the surface of skin-kidneys=lowerback, gallbladder=R.shoulder, heart=L. arm)
Pain felt in visceral organs Visceral pain (in pattern).
Created by: 741879016