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Coverings of brain. Menengies are dura-, arachnoid-, and pia- mater.
What are the main suppliers of blood to brain.? Carotid and vertibral arteries.
What drains blood out of brain? Jugular vein.
How long without a fresh supply of blood until brain tissue dies? 4-5 minutes.
What does the brain run off? What happens if no fuel? Glucose, diabetic coma.
What makes up the BBB? Astrocytes make up the blood-brain barrier.
How can you test if fluid coming out of a human head is CSF or not? Put some on gauze and if blood separates out in bulls eye, it is CSF.
Where in the brain is CSF found? Describe it. Subarachnoid space. Clear, colorless, contains O2, white blood cells, glucose, proteins, lactic acid, cations and anions.
How much CSF in a human? 80-150 mL
Name 4 cavities and tubes between them in the brain with CSF. Ventricals 1 + 2 = Lateral ventricles, interventricular foramen, third ventricle, cerebral aquaduct, 4th ventricle, central canal.
What makes CSF? Choroid plexus of ventricles, high in ependymal cells.
What path does CSF circulation take? Through ventricles into central canal and then between the meninges to subarachnoid space of spinal cord and up to top of brain in this same subarachnoid space into the subarachnoid superior sagittal, into the veins, and to the kidneys.
What are the three main parts and size if known of the brain stem? Midbrain, pons (~2.5cm), medulla oblongata (~3 cm).
Where do the motor neurons cross-over to the opposite side of the body than the side of the brain they originate? Pyramids of anterior portion of medulla oblongata
What is in the posterior portion of the medulla oblangata? What is transmitted here? What does it combine into? Fascicularis gracilis (sensory from legs) and fascicularis cuneatus (sensory from arms and torso) combine and go to the thalamus as the medial lemniscus.
What cranial nerves come out of the medulla oblongata? 9,10,11,12 (glossopharangeal,vagus, spinal accessory, hypoglossal)
What cranial nerves come out of the pons? 5, 6, 7, 8 (trigeminal, abducens, facial, vestibulocochlear.
What cranial nerves come out of the midbrain? 3,4 (oculomotor, trochlear)
Where is the "cardiovascular center" of the brain? medulla oblongata
Where is the "breathing center" of the brain? Pons
What is the nervous tissue rich "bridge" from the brain stem to the rest of the brain Pons
What is in the anterior portion of the midbrain? What does it transmit? Cerebral peduncle (transmits S+M for body)
What is in the posterior portion of the midbrain? What is transmitted? Tectum, made of the superior colliculi (eyesight) and inferior colliculi (hearing)
What are the two red spheres in the midbrain? What are they for and what do they contain? The red nuclei are for muscular movement (synapses between axons from cerebellum and cortex) and are rich in iron and blood and used a lot.
What part of the midbrain is connected to the basal ganglia? malfuntion = what? Neurons that release dopamine extend from the substantia nigra to the basal ganglia and help control subconscious muscle movements. Loss of these neurons causes Parkinson's. Two much dopamine= Schizophrenia?
Small clusters of gray matter (neuronal cell bodies) interspersed among small bundles of white matter (myelinated axons)? Found where? Function? Reticular formation from upper spinal cord, throughout brain stem, into lower diencephalon. Sensory axons that project to cerebral cortex helps maintain consciousness and awakens. Descending motor tracts help regulate posture and muscle tone.
Where are half the total brain neurons found? Cerebellum
Lobes of cerebellum and function. Central- vermis. Anterior + posterior (subconscious skeletal mvmt). Floccolonodular (equilibrium and balance).
Gray matter on outside of cerebellum- 2 names. Cerebellar cortex/folia.
White matter on inside of cerebellum. Arbor vitae
White matter that attaches cerebellum to brain stem and what is sent to other parts of the brain through these. Inferior peducle (transmits sensory from ear and proprioceptors of body). Middle peduncle (larges, commands for voluntary motor mvmt). Superior peduncle (contains axons from cerebellum to red nucleus to thalamus. Some motor neurons to skeletal muscle).
What is the main function of the cerebellum? What substance directly affects this? Correct errors in movement and smooth and coordinate movement of the body. Alcohol.
What is above the brain stem? Diencephalon.
Name the 3 main areas of the area above the brain stem. Hypothalamus, epithalamus, thalamus.
What part of the brain causes sleepiness? The pineal gland that makes up most of the epithalamus secretes melatonin which causes sleepiness.
What does the hypothalamus do? Controls ANS and regulates hormones (affects consciousness, circadian rhythm, body temp., eating and drinking, and emotion)
How many years will making 1 week shift changes for a year take off your life? About 7
What is considered the "relay center" for sensory and consciousness and autonomic activities? What travels through here. Is the thalamus specific? All sensory travels through the thalamus and it knows the region of the body the sensory comes from. The cortex knows exactly about the sensory.
Describe the size, makeup, and structure of the thalamus, and function. ~3cm in length, mostly gray matter (white matter= internal capsule= axons on their way to cortex). Relay center for sensory and consciousness and autonomic activities.
What surrounds the third ventricle? Thalamus of diencephalon
What surrounds the fourth ventricle? Pons of brain stem
What surrounds the cerebral aquaduct? Midbrain of brain stem.
What is above the lateral ventricles? Corpus callosum.
What is considered the "seat of intellegence" of the brain? Cerebrum
Outer gray matter of cerebrum. Function. Cerebral cortex is origin of all voluntary motor mvmnt (contralateral).
Extension of the dura mater that separates the two hemispheres of the cerebrum. Falx cerebri
Fold of cerebrum. 2 innies of cerebrum Gyrus. Sulcus (shallow) or fissure (deep)
Connects two hemispheres Corpus callosum
Cerebral lobes Frontal parietal, temporal, occipital
Division of cerebral white matter. Association (connect gyri in same hemisphere), communication (connect gyri in different hemispheres, and projection (ascending or descending tracts) fibers
Nuclei (masses of gray matter) deep within each cerebral hemisphere. Basal ganglia...Globus pallidus ("ball, pale") + putamen ("shell") = lentiform ("shaped like a lense") nucleus. Caudate ("tail") nucleus is third basal ganglion.
What do nuclei in cerebral cortex do? Help with subconscious movement and is an on/off switch for movement. Receives input from cerebral cortex and descending motor tracts.
Most internal portion of the cerebrum encircling the upper part of the brain stem and the corpus callosum. Functions. Limbic ("border") system. Emotion (fear-amygdala), smell, and memory (hippocampus).
Term for map of body on primary somatosensory and motor area. Humunculus of Man
Area of cortex for speaking. Broca's Speech Area in lower motor area (precentral gyrus)of frontal lobe just anterior to ear, mainly in the left hemisphere.
Area of cortex for understanding speech. Wernicke's Speech Area just posterior to Broca's, in association area of temporal and parietal lobes, mainly in the left hem.
Area of cortex that integrates different sensory input into ideas and thoughts and transmits signals to other parts of the brain for the appropriate response. Common integrative area. Just above Wernicke's
Area of cortex that controls voluntary movement of eyes. What nerves? Frontal eye field area. 3,4 (oculomotor + trochlear, out through midbrain) and 6 (abducens, out through pons)
Personality area Prefrontal cortex.
All sensory ends up here. Postcentral gyrus/ Primary somatosensory area
All motor originates here. precentral gyrus/ primary motor area
Left-brained scientific in thought, better with reasoning and language
Right-brained more music and art. Better at pattern perception, mental images clearer, stronger emotions.
Reads brain waves. EEG, electroencephalogram
Types of brain waves and meaning. Alpha (only when awake), Beta (nervous system activity), Theta (emotional stress), Delta (deep sleep and awake infants)
Created by: 741879016



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