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Spinal cord and spinal nerves

Name for protective coverings over spinal cord and brain. Meninges
3 Protective layers and spaces- spine out to in. Epidural space, dura mater, subdural space, arachnoid mater, subarachnoid space, pia mater.
What space in the spinal cord has CSF? Subarachnoid space
Hold spinal cord to inner most layer. Denticulate ligaments
Spinal cord starts here and goes to this vertebra. Medulla oblangata to L2.
Where is there a cord enlargement and why? Cervical and Lumbar enlargement for arm and leg nerves.
End of spinal cord. Conus medullaris
Extension of pia mater leading out/coccygeal nerves. Filum Terminale
Nerves from end of spinal cord- horses tail. Cauda Equina
How many pairs of spinal nerves do we have? Where is the first? What nerve is below C7 vertebra? What is below vertebra T9? 31 pairs, C1 nerve is above C1 vertebra. C8 is below C7 vertebra. T9 nerve is below vertebra T9.
Indent on anterior side of spinal cord. Anterior median fissure
Indent on posterior side of spinal cord. Posterior median sulcus
Cross-bar of gray matter. Gray commissure.
Space containing CSF in the middle of spinal cord. Central canal
Area of gray matter where sensory enters. Tube sensory comes from. Posterior gray horn. Sensory/dorsal root
Area of gray matter where motor leaves. Tube motor goes out through. Anterior gray horn. Motor/anterior root.
Area of gray matter found only in part of spinal cord. Name area, location, and what nerves are involved. Lateral gray horn. In thorax + L1 + L2. For autonomic motor nerves to glands, cardiac muscle, and smooth muscle.
General areas of white matter. Anterior, lateral, and dorsal white columns.
Bundles of axons in spinal cord-CNS. Called what in PNS? Tracts vs. nerves.
Layers of connective tissue covering nerves. Epineurium around whole nerve. Perineurium around fascicles. Endoneurium around each axon.
Branches of spinal nerves and what they do. Posterior ramus (feeds deep muscles back skin), anterior rami (feed muscle and structures of limbs, skin of front and sides of torso), Meningeal branch (turns back twd spinal cord and feeds meninges)
Name for network of axons from anterior rami. Plexus.
Spinal nerves in cervical network of axons. Cervical plexus- C1-C4, some C5.
Nerves in brachial axon network. Name 5 major nerve branches of this network. brachial plexus- C5-T1. To arms. Musculocutaneous (biceps), Axillary (deltoid), Radial (triceps), Median (anterior forearm + hand), Ulnar (posterior forearm + hand)
Nerves of lumbar nerve network. What do they feed? Lumbar Plexus- L1-L4 go to anterior and lateral abdominal wall, external genitalia, and parts of the legs.
What spinal nerves do not branch? T2-T12
What nerves are in sacral network? What do they form and feed? L4, L5, S1-S4. They combine to make the sciatic nerve (and other smaller nerves)and feed the buttocks, legs, and perineum.
What nerves are in the lower most nerve network? Coccygeal plexus- S4+S5
What problem is often from L4 +L5 disc damage? Sciatica
What causes TOS? Tight scalenes push on brachial plexus and can cause thoracic outlet syndrome.
What nerve problem is associated with the wrist? Carpal tunnel is the entrapment of the median nerve in this tunnel.
What can you do to give your enemy limp arms? Cause acute trauma to the brachial plexus - C5.
What is the term for skin segments related to specific nerves? Dermatomes.
How many cervical nerves are there? 8
If someone has a C5 disc herniation, what area may have lowered sensation? Anterior forearm.
If a patient has a numb thumb, what nerve may be damaged? C6 nerve--- C5 or C6 disc herniation?
2 homeostatic functions of spinal cord Transmit nerves and integrate info from brain.
Name 3 white matter tracts and what sense is transmitted. Lateral spinothalamic tract (pain and temperature). Anterior spinothalamic tract (deep pressure and touch). Posterior columns (vibration, proprioception, discriminative touch, and 2 pnt. discrimintation).
2 types of pathways of motor output from brain to spinal cord and what messages go through them. Direct pathway (cerebral cortex to skeletal muscle as voluntary movements).Indirect pathway (automatic mvmts, eye coordination, muscle tone 2/mvmt)
What is a reflex? A fast automatic unplanned sequence of actions.
What are the 5 parts to a reflex arc? Sensory receptor, sensory neuron, brain/integrative area/interneuron, motor neuron, effector.
If the effector is skeletal muscle, the reflex is what type? Somatic reflex.
If the effector is glands, cardiac, or smooth muscle what type is the reflex? Autonomic reflex.
What are two reflexes that don't involve skeletal muscle and what do they cause? Two autonomic reflexes are the carotid reflex and the baroreflex of pushing on the eye and both lower RR, HR, and BP.
Just name 4 reflexes involving skeletal muscle. 4 somatic reflexes: Stretch reflex, tendon reflex, flexor reflex, and crossed extensor reflex.
Describe the reflex involved when hitting the books all day. Stretch reflex- stretched muscles contract to prevent overstretching and tearing (muscle length control). The opposing muscles do nothing (relax) called antagonist inhibition.
Type of reflex done by doctor with hammer on knee. Why is this done? Stretch reflex- hit patellar ligament cause quick stretch of quad which contracts, kicking foot. If this is decreased, there is a problem with the lower motor neuron in PNS. If overexagerated, problem with upper motor neuron in CNS.
Describe reflex dealing with muscle tension control. When will it be seen? Tendon reflex overrides stretch reflex when too much tension on tendons to protect a rupture from bone, like if carrying something heavy.
What happens if you step on a tack? There will be ipsilateral flexion (through interneuron) and contralateral extension (through interneuron on opposite side).
What reflex do we lose as a young child? What does this reflex mean if found in an adult? Babinski reflex (fanning of toes with stroking to side of foot/sole) is negative by 2 y.o. and if positive, there is a problem in CNS.
Created by: 741879016



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