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BNS 107 Week 8

Sex and Gender

Sex as motivation sex is like hunger and thirst, but it also differs greatly because it is not a bodily need, but it is a species need.
Coolidge effect the refractory phase can be lowered if the male is presented with a new female
sex hormones androgenes (or testosterone), estrogen (and estrus which is produce in the period of ovulation), and progesterone
medial amygdala located in the temporal lobe, it contributes to sexual behavior of both sexes. Located near the lateral ventricle in each temporal lobe, the amygdala is involved in sexual behavior, aggression and emotions.
PVN important in males specifically, it is important for male sexual performance and, particularly, for penile erections
Dopamine neurotransmitter, drugs that increase dopamine increase sexual activity and orgasmic activity
Serotonin neurotransmitter, ejaculation is accompanied by increases in serotonin in the lateral hypothalamus, drugs that increase serotonin impairs sexual ability and orgasm
VNO Connects to the MPOA and the amygdala, functions in humans is uncertain, odor receptors
Gender behavioral characteristics associated with being male or female
Androgens A class of hormones responsible for a number of male characteristics and functions, aka testosterone.
Gender identity subjective feeling of being male or female
male genitalia wolffian ducts, testes, and testosterone
female genitalia ovaries, mullerian ducts, and estrogen
Role of estradiol In males: defeminizes the brain, increased male-typical behaviors when testosterone is converted into estradiol in neurons In females: feminizes the brain, females have reduced sexual interest/receptivity when estrogen levels are low
Transsexual someone who’s biology does not reflect their gender identity, so they will take opposite sex hormones in order to become more proficient in that sex’s behaviors
BSTc controls autonomic, neuroendocrine, and behavioral responses. are larger in males than in females, but they have been reported to be female sized in male-tofemale transgender individuals
AIS a genetic absence of androgen receptors, thus creating an insensitivity to androgen. The person has male sex chromosomes and internal sex organs, but external sex characteristics are feminized or ambiguous
Phases of sexual response cycle excitement phase, plateau phase, orgasm, resolution phase, [refractory phase (in men only), recovery in order to engage in sex again]
Castration removal of gonads (which is the major source of sex hormones) causing a loss of sexual motivation
MPOA important area of the hypothalamus for both sexes, involved with performance more than sexual motivation
vmH active in females during copulation , and its destruction reduces the female’s responsiveness to a male’s advances
SDN of MPOA located in the preoptic area, the SDN is three to four times larger in male rats than in females, and a male’s level of sexual activity is related to the size of the SDN
Pheremones chemical released into the environment, affects another individual (usually of the same species
Organizing hormonal effects Mostly occurs prenatally and shortly after birth Affect structure and are permanent Developmental and maturation of genitalia, increase in stature, increase in sexual behaviors
activating hormonal effects Can occur at any time in life Effects are reversible if hormone productor is removed Breast development, Areas of body for fat deposition, muscle/hair growth, sexual interest and intimacy
INAH-3 The third interstitial nucleus of the anterior hypothalamus, it is larger in men than in women and is thought to be the human counterpart of the sexually dimorphic nucleus.
DSD ambiguous internal and external organs, gonads are consistent with their chromosomes
CAH adrenal glands produce large amounts of prenatal androgen
Created by: Lee543
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