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PSYS 160 Exam Two

What do empiricists do? Form conclusions based on observation and measurements.
What is an experiment? Includes an independent and dependent variable, one variable is manipulated, and one variable is measured.
What is a correlation? The extent to which two dependent variables are associated/related to each other, there is no manipulation, only measurement.
Are experiments or correlations more ethical? Correlations
In what study can you use prove a causal relationship? True Experiment
What factors make an experiment a true experiment? Random assignment and independent and dependent variable.
In what study can you prove a correlational relationship? Correlational Study
What are the pros of experiments? They make cause and effect conclusions.
What are the cons of experiments? The feasibility and ethics.
What are the pros of correlations? The efficiency and feasibility.
What are the cons of correlations? They cannot establish cause and effect conclusions.
What is neuropharmacology? How drugs modulate the nervous system and how that changes behavior and mental processing.
What are the properties of neurotransmitters? Synthesis, release down the axon, bind to receptors on post-synaptic neurons, and cause polarity shift in Peripheral Nervous System.
What are the major neurotransmitters? Acetylcholine (ACH), Serotonin (5-HT), Dopamine, Norepinephrine, Epinephrine, Glutamate, and GABA.
What does Acetylcholine aid with? Learning and memory in the Central Nervous System.
What does Serotonin aid with? Mood, sleep, appetite, and mood.
What does Dopamine aid with? Eating, reward, and anything that makes us feel good.
What are the two types of receptors? Ionotropic receptors (ligand-gated that contain ion channels) and Metabotropic receptors (open voltage-gated channels and no ion channels).
What does Epinephrine aid with? Hormones
What is Glutamate? An excitatory transmitter that has its greatest density in the Central Nervous System.
What does GABA do? Inhibits other activity in the nervous system.
What is the process of synaptic transmission? The action potential reaches the terminal, it opens voltage-gated calcium channels, the neuron becomes excited, calcium initiates exocytosis, neurotransmitters are packaged up by vesicles, the vesicles break into synapse, and then they bind to receptors.
What are the mechanisms of neurotransmitter clearance? Enzymes break down the neurotransmitters that do not bind, some NTs that do not bind are recycled (reuptake), and auto receptors regulate NT production.
What are ligands? Chemicals that alter cell polarity.
What cells are endogenous (naturally occurring in the body)? Neurotransmitters and hormones.
What cells are exogenous (coming into the body from the environment)? Drugs
What are agonists? They mimic the effect of a neurotransmitter and enhance the effect of the neurotransmitter.
What are antagonists? They block the neurotransmitter.
What is a competitive receptor? If a drug binds, another neurotransmitter cannot.
What is a noncompetitive receptor? If a drug binds, a neurotransmitter can still bind.
What is psychosis? Too much Dopamine.
What are psychoactive drugs? Drugs that effect the mind/mental processing.
Are opioids agonists or antagonists? Agonists
What is Narcan? An opioid antagonist.
What is the effect of alcohol in low doses? Stimulant
What is the effect of alcohol in high doses? Depressant
What does alcohol do in the synapse? It inhibits glutamate release, which encourages a sedative effect.
What do stimulants do? Enhance arousal, mood, and stimulate the nervous system.
What is the effect of caffeine in low doses? Stimulant
What is the effect of caffeine in high doses? Depressant
What happens if Adenosine is blocked? There will be more Dopamine and Acetylcholine, which leads to more energy and arousal.
What does caffeine do? Competes with Adenosine, so you need "coffee naps."
What is a reinforcer? A stimulus that follows a behavior which increases the likelihood of that behavior.
What are primary reinforcers? Reinforcers needed for survival (hunger, thirst, etc.).
What are secondary reinforcers? Reinforcers not necessary for survival but associated with primary reinforcers (money and praise).
What are pleasurable reinforcers? Not required for survival (sex and drugs).
When is Dopamine release the greatest? When access to a drug is uncertain (50%).
What are the two Dopamine systems? Mesostriatal and Mesolimbocortical
What is the Mesostriatal system associated with? The Basal Ganglia and motor control. Meso means midbrain and striata means part of the Basal Ganglia.
What is the Mesolimbocortical system associated with? The Midbrain, the Nucleus Accumbens, and the Ventral Tagmental area. It includes the area that detects drugs, the pleasure from the drug, and the motivation to reuse.
What two areas of the brain enhance the effects of drug use? The Hippocampus and the Amygdala.
What do opioids do? They inhibit GABA, which allows Dopamine to disperse widespread in the cell.
What are learned associations? A cue plus drugs cause cravings and drug seeking behaviors.
What is tolerance? When you become less responsive to a drug because of consistent use.
What are the effects of drug tolerance? Reduced receptor sensitivity, ligands bind less to receptors, and there are fewer Dopamine receptors.
What is drug dependency? Reduced endogenous Dopamine and feeling less pleasure from natural reinforcers.
What do cues do? They prep the Mesolimbocortical system and opioid receptors to encounter the drug.
Why are drug addictions hard to treat? There is less endogenous Dopamine, it is hard to remove cues, it could cause social disruption, hypofrontality (less self-control/more impulsivity), and psychological comorbidities.
What is the agonist treatment for drug abuse? Replace the drug addiction with another safer drug to ween off addiction.
What is the antagonist treatment for drug abuse? Reduce drug use by using an antagonist to block drug effects.
What is the aversive treatment for drug abuse? Creating associations between negative experiences and drug usage.
What is the anti-drug vaccine treatment for drug abuse? Using antibodies that degrade the drug.
What does Cognitive Behavioral Therapy do? Increases motivation, incentivizes alternatives to drug use, addresses comorbidities, and provides participants with more coping strategies.
What are the biological aspects of addiction? Genes, Dopamine, and hypofrontality.
What are the psychological aspects of addiction? Cravings, comorbidities, and associations.
What are the social aspects of addiction? Cues, pressures, and social consequences.
What is Somatic intervention? We manipulate physiology and measure behavior.
What is in-group design? There is random assignment to groups, it accounts for individual differences, and there is no pre-test or post-test.
What is within-between group design? Random assignment, but we measure the dependent before and after the manipulation.
What is behavioral intervention? We manipulate behavior and measure physiology.
What is sex as a noun? Biological aspects of maleness and/or femaleness (XX and XY).
What is gender? Psychological, social, and cultural aspects of "maleness/femaleness."
What is sexual orientation? The sex/gender(s) that one is attracted to.
What is the Kinsey Scale? A scale that measures sexual orientation on a spectrum.
What is the Klein Grid? A grid that considers sexual orientation in terms of past, present, and future.
What are the activating effects of sexual development? Hormone secretion later in life (puberty, menopause, and pregnancy).
What are the organizing effects of sexual development? Hormone secretion permanently organizes the nervous system early in development (pre-natal).
What are hormones? Neurotransmitters that change cells and underly motivational behaviors.
What do the endocrine glands do? Secrete hormones into the bloodstream like adrenal glands.
What do the exocrine glands do? Secrete hormones outside of the body like sweat glands.
What are the two categories of the biological determinants of sexual development? Organizing effects and activating effects.
What are the effects of puberty on individuals with XY chromosomes? More muscle density, voice deepening, and hair follicle growth.
What are sex-typical behaviors? Behaviors that occur more frequently in one sex than the other.
In males, what hormone underlies sexual behavior like mounting? Testosterone
In females, what hormone underlies sexual behavior like lordosis? Estrogen
How do you manipulate hormones? Castration of gonads and blocking androgen receptors.
What happens as an effect of castrating gonads? Males mount less and exhibit lordosis more.
What happens as an effect of blocking androgen receptors? Females mount other females more frequently.
What is the process for sexual motivation? Dopamine begins in the Amygdala (which recognizes sex stimuli), and moves to the hypothalamus, which then activates/inhibits the sex glands in the medial preoptic area (MPoA).
What happens to Parkinson's patients when they take medicine (Dopamine agonist)? They experience increased sexual behavior.
What is a gene? A segment of DNA that codes for a behavior trait and physical aspects.
What are the genetic influences on gender identity? CYP17 increases testosterone levels (common in XY males but also XX biological females who transition to males), and AR gene reduces androgen receptor sensitivity (common in XY males who transition to female).
What does the hypothalamus do? It has top-down control over the endocrine system. There is a difference in volume between biological cis-gendered men, biological cis-gendered women, and transgender women (biologically XY).
What are the differences in sexual development (DSD) in XY biological males? Enzyme deficiency which leads to undescended testes, and delayed genital differentiation. These individuals are usually raised as female but almost all switch gender identity to male (hormones dictate gender identity).
What are the differences in sexual development (DSD) in XY biological males? Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome, which is the genetic absence of androgen receptors. Testes do not descend, and the body will be feminized. These individuals usually identity as women.
What are the differences in sexual development (DSD) in XX biological females? Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia, which contains enzymes that cause adrenal glands that overproduce testosterone. Parents typically choose to go with whichever phenotype is more expressed.
What is the neutral at birth ("Nurture") theory? Genitalia dictates rearing, and gender is based on environment only. 95% of Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia individuals that are raised as males accept that gender.
What is the sexuality at birth ("Nature") theory? Chromosomes dictate gender identity. Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia individuals raised as males accept male identity because of the increased testosterone in their bodies.
What drives differences in gender identity? Testosterone
What is the social influences hypothesis when considering determinants of sexual orientation? Individuals who are not straight spent more time with opposite sex playmates, there are early same-sex experiences, and there are early displays of gender non-conformity.
What are the genetics behind sexual orientation? Non-straight orientation is more common with siblings, alleles on the X chromosome are more common in non-straight individuals, and genes associated with sexual orientation are also associated with fertility.
What are the pre-natal influences behind sexual orientation? In rodents, blocking testosterone increases same-sex behaviors, gay orientation is more common in families with more male children, and pre-natal testosterone in the womb decreases with each born child.
What is a Myelin stain? Stains the Myelin Sheath so that the axons can be visualized more clearly.
What is a Nissl stain? Stain that identifies cell bodies.
What is immunohistochemistry? Antibodies attached to dye identify receptors, neurotransmitters, and enzymes.
What are some non-human research methods? Surgically, pharmacologically, and optogenetics.
How do we monitor behavior in mice? Skinner boxes (has stimuli and monitors), open field test (tests anxiety), and Morris Water Maze (spatial memory).
What are optogenetics? Applying light to activate neurons. This does not interfere with measuring neuronal activity.
What is chemical stimulation? Uses an atlas to insert cannula full of drugs into specific neurons.
What is ablation? Identify and remove a portion of brain tissue.
What is a lesion? Damaging neural tissue using electrical current, heat, or neurotoxin.
What does it mean for a method to be high in structural resolution? It is good at examining brain structure, relative sizes of structures, and structural abnormalities.
What does it mean for a method to be high in functional resolution? Highlights brain activation during tasks or behavior.
What is temporal resolution? Precision in the timing of brain activation.
What are CT Scans? Computed Tomography
What do CT Scans do? They create 2D images of your brain and can detect radiation. They are "quick and dirty."
What is a MRI? Magnetic Resonance Imagine
What does an MRI do? A large magnetic field is applied, and it detect differences in distribution of hydrogen protons throughout the brain.
What is a DTI? Diffusion Tensor Imaging
What does DTI do? It estimates the amount of white matter in the brain.
What methods are functional imaging methods? FMRI and PET
What does an FMRI do? Highlights the distribution of oxygen in the bloodstream.
What does an EEG do? Measure brain activity and "noise" related to excitedness, coma, sleep, etc.
What are event-related potentials? Voltage deflections that reflect distinct cognitive operations.
What resolutions do MRIs have? High spatial, but no temporal.
What resolutions do DTIs have? High spatial, but no temporal.
What resolutions do CTs have? Medium spatial, but no temporal.
What resolutions do PETs have? High spatial, but poor temporal.
What resolutions do fMRIs mean? High spatial, but poor temporal (preferred method).
What resolutions do EEGs/ERPs have? Low spatial, but high temporal.
What methods are commonly used for biopsychology? EEG and ERP.
What was the independent variable in our class experiment? The intervention, or the nature walk.
What were the dependent variables in our class experiment? The active seconds, the neutral seconds, the calm seconds, percentage calm, Muse points, number of recoveries, and the number of birds.
What makes an experiment a true experiment? Cause-effect relationship established, standardization of procedure, random assignment, and the manipulation of our independent variable.
What was the conclusion of our experiment? The nature walk had no significant influence on our results of the experiment.
Created by: kayleeswilson
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