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Chap12 nervous

nervous tissue

the ____ system along with the _____ helps to keep controlled conditions within limits that maintain helath and helps to maintain homeostasis nervous, endocrine
nervous has 3 basic functions - sensing changes with sensory receptors-interpreting and remembering those changes- reacting to those changes with effectors
a _____ is a bundle of hundreds or thousands of axons, each which courses along a defined path and serves a specific region of the body nerve
spinal cord connects to the ____ through the _____ _____ of the skull and is encircled by the bones of the vertebral column brain; foramen magnum
____ is located outside the brain and the spinal cord, are small masses of nervous tissue containing primarily cell bodies of neruons ganglia
entric _____ help regulate the digestive system plexuses
____ _____ are either parts of neruons or specialized cells that monitor changes in the internal or external enviroment sensory receptors
the ____ function is to analyze the sensory info., store some aspects and make decisions reguarding appropriate behaviors. (association or interneurons serve this function) integrative
the ____ function is to respone to stimului by initiating action motor
CNS brain/ spinal
PNS -cranial/ spinal nerves (sensory & motor)-connects CNS to muscles, glands and all sensory receptors
motor neurons to skeletal muscles somatic (voluntary) SNS
neurons from cutaneous and special sensory receptors to CNS SNS
sensory neurons from visceral organs to CNS autonomic (involuntary) nervous system
motor neurons to smooth and cardiac mucles and glands (symp/parasymp) ANS
involuntary sensory and motor neruons control GI tract enteric nervous system
______ neurons of the ENS monitor chemical changes within the GI tract and streching of its walls sensory neruons
consists of neurons in enteric plexuses that extend the length of the GI tract enteric nervous system
enteric motor neurons govern contraction of GI tract organs, and acticity of the GI tract endocrine cells enteric motor neruons
functional unit of nervous system neuron
capacity to pro. action potenial/ electical excitability neruons
cell body contains nissl bodies(chromatin) what do they do pro. rough ER and free ribosomes for protein synthesis
____ give cell shape and support neruofilaments
___ move material inside cell microtubules
cell processes= dendrites and axons
___ are the recieving or input portions of a neuron (carry action potential toward soma) dendrites
conducts nerve impules from the neuron to the dendrites or cell body of another neuron or to an efffect organ of the body (muscle or gland) axon
typically short, highly branched and unmyelinated dendrites
conduct impules away from cell body axons
long, thin cylindrical process of cell axon
in axons they arise where? axon hillox
swollen tips called synapic end bulbs contain vesicles filled with neurotransmitters
cell body is location for most protein synthesis
slow axonal flow movement in one direction only- away from cell body
fast axonal flow moves organelles & materials along surface of microtubules; either direction
most neurons in body are interneurons
sveral dendries and one axon- most common type of cell multipolar
one main dendrite and one axon bipolar
bipolar are found where near retina, inner ear and olfactory
one process only (develops from a bipolar) unipolar
unipolar are always sensory neurons
transport sensory info from skin, muslces, joints, sense organs and viscera to CNS sensory (afferent) neurons
send motor nerve impules to mucles and glands motor (efferent) neurons
connect sensory to motor neurons- 90% of neurons in body interneurons(association) neurons
half of the volume of the CNS/ smaller cells than neurons neuroglial cells
these cells can divide- rapid mitosis in tumor formation (gliomas) neuroglial cells
star- shaped cells/ form BBB by covering blood capillaries astrocyte
metabolize neurotrasmitter/ reg. potassium balance/ provide structural support Astrocytes
small cells found near blood vessels/ phagocytic role- clear away dead cells microglia
form epithelial membrane lining cerebral cavities and central canal of spinal cord ependymal cells
produce CSF ependymal cells
derived from cells that also gave rise to macrophages and monocytes microglia
support neurons in the PNS ganglia satellite cells
flat cells surrounding neuronal cell boides in peripheral ganglia satellite
most common glial cell type/ analogous to Schwann cells of PNS Oligodendocytes
Each forms myelin sheath around more than one axons in CNS Oligodendocytes
a multilayered lipid and protein covering called the myelin sheath myelinination
produced by Schwann cells and oligodendocytes surrounds the axons of most neurons myeliniation
cells encircling the PNS axons Schwann cells
Each cell pro. part of myelin sheath surrounding an axon in the PNS Schwann cell
all axons surround by a lipoprotein covering_____ produced by ______ myelin sheath, Schwann cells
jelly-roll like wrappings made of lipoprotein myelin
Schwann cell _____&______ forms outermost layer of neurolemma with inner portion being the myelin sheath cytoplasm and nucleus
_____ myeliniate axons in the CNS oligodendocytes
white matter= myelinated processes (white in color)
nerve cell bodies, dendrites, axon terminals, bundles of UNmyelinated axons and neuroglia grey matter
spinal cord= gray matter froms an H-shape inner core surrounded by white matter
thin outer shell of gray matter covers surface and is found in clusters called nuclei inside the CNS brain
a ____ is a mass of nerve cell bodies and dendrites inside the CNS nucleus
neurons are electically excitable due to the ____ difference across their membrane voltage
communicate with two types of electrical signals: 1. action potention2. graded potential
potentials that can travel long dis. action
potentials that are local membrane changes only graded
in living cells, a flow of ions occurs though ____ _____ in the cell membrane ion channels
_____ (nongated) channels are always open leakage
in leakage cannels, membrane permeablility to ___ is high K+
____ channels open and close in response to a stimulus- results in neuron excitability gated
___ ____ channels respond to voltage changes, ligands(chemicals) and mechanical pressure gated ion channels
_____ gated channels respond to a direct change in the membrane potential voltage-gated channels
respond to a spefici chemical stiumulus ligand gated channels
respond to mechianical vibration or pressure mechanically gated ion channels
____ ions along inside of cell mem. and ___ ions along outside neg/ postivie
potential enegry difference at rest is -70
why does resting potential exist concentration of ions different inside and outside
Created by: Mollie28



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