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Modern Europe

Chapters 24-27

A total war from August 1914 to November 1918, involving the armies of Britain, France, and Russia (the Allies) against Germany, Austria-Hungary, and the Ottoman empire (the Central Powers). Italy joined the Allies in 1915, and the United States later. World War I
Alliance developed before WWI that eventually included Britain, France, and Russia. Triple Entente
During WWI included Britain, France and Russia. Eventually came to include Italy and the US. Allied Powers
During WWI included Germany, Austria-Hungary and the Ottoman Empire. Central Powers
(1863-1914) Archduke of Austria and heir to the Austro-Hungarian empire; his assassination led to the beginning of WWI. Franz Ferdinand
Put into operation on August 2, 1914, required France to be attacked first through Belgium and a quick victory to be secured so that the German army could fight Russia on the Eastern Front. Schlieffen Plan
the 25,000 miles of holes and ditches that stretched across the Western Front during WWI and where most of the fighting took place. trench warfare
Military front that stretched from the English Channel through Belgium and France to the Alps during WWI. Western Front
The passenger liner that was secretly carrying war supplies and was sunk by a German U-boat on May 7, 1915. Lusitania
A letter dated Nov. 2 1917, by Lord Arthur Balfour, British Foreign Secretary, that promised a homeland for the Jews in Palestine. Balfour Declaration
The Irish revolutionary organization that formed in 1900 to fight for Irish independence. Sinn Fein
The memoir by Vera Brittain about the home front and the changing social norms during WWI. Testament of Youth
(1868-1918) The last Russian tsar, who abdicated the throne on 1917. He and his family were executed by the Bolsheviks on July 17, 1918. Nicholas II
(1917)The first of two uprisings of the Russian Revolution, which led to the end of the Romanov dynasty. February Revolution
(1870-1924) Leader of the Bolshevik Revolution in Russia (1917) and the first leader of the Soviet Union. Vladimir Lenin
(1918) Separate peace between imperial Germany and the new Bolshevik regime in Russia. The treaty acknowledged the German victory on the Eastern Front and withdrew Russia from the war. Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
International organization founded after WWI to solve international disputes through arbitration; it was dissolved in 1946 and transferred its assets to the United Nations. League of Nations
(1919) Peace conference between the victors of WWI. Versailles Conference.
Signed on June 28, 1919, this peace settlement ended WWI and required Germany to surrender a large part of its most valuable territories and to pay huge reparations to the Allies. Treaty of Versailles
Former members of the Russian Social Democratic Party who advocated the destruction of capitalist political and economic institutions and started the Russian Revolution. In 1918 the Bolsheviks changed their name to the Russian Communist Party. Bolsheviks
Refers to the "counterrevolutionaries" of the Bolshevik Revolution (1918-1921) who fought the Bolsheviks (the "Reds"); included former supporters of the tsar, Social Democrats, and large independent peasant armies. Whites
(1879-1953) The Bolshevik leader who succeeded Lenin as the leader of the Soviet Union in 1924 and ruled until his death. Joseph Stalin
The process under Stalin in the 1920s and 1930s where peasants were forced to give up private farmland and join collective farms, which were supported by the state. collectivization
Originally a pejorative term used to designate better-off peasants, it was used in the late 1920s and early 1930s to refer to any peasant, rich or poor, perceived as an opponent of the Soviet regime. Russian for "fist". kulaks
Launched by Stalin (1928) to replace the market economy with a government-owned and operated economy in order to promote rapid economic development over a five-year period and thereby "catch and overtake the leading capitalist countries. Five-Year Plan
The systematic murder of nearly a million people and the deportation of another million and a half to labor camps by Stalin's regime during 1937 in an attempt to consolidate power and remove perceived enemies. Great Terror
(1883-1945) Italian founder of the Fascist party who came to power in Italy in 1922 and allied himself with Hitler and the Nazis during WWII Benito Mussolini
Radical right-wing group of the disaffected that formed around Mussolini in 1919 and a few years later came to power in Italy. fascists
The troops of Mussolini's fascist regime; the squads received money from Italian landowners to attack socialist leaders. Black Shirts
The government of Germany between 1919 and the rise of Hitler and the Nazi party. Weimar Republic
(1889-1945) The author of "Mein Kampf" and leader of the Nazis. Hitler and his Nazi regime started WWII and orchestrated the systematic murder of over five million Jews. Adolf Hitler
(1923) The Nazi invasion of a meeting of Bavarian leaders and supporters in a Munich beer hall; Adolf Hitler was imprisoned for a year after the incident. Beer Hall Putsch
A term used for the German state. The first corresponded to the Holy Roman Empire, the second was from 1871 to 1919, and the third lasted from 1933 through May 1945. Reich
The German state from 1933 to 1945 under Adolf Hitler and the Nazi party. Third Reich
Founded in the early 1920s, the Nationalist Socialist German Workers' Party (NDSAP) gained control over Germany under the leadership of Adolf Hitler in 1933 and continued in power until Germany was defeated in 1945. Nazi Party
Formed in 1925 to serve as Hitler's personal security force and to guard the Nazi party meetings. the SS was notorious for participation in carrying out Nazi policies. SS
The Nazi destruction of 7,500 Jewish stores and 200 synagogues on November 9, 1938. Kristallnacht
Period following the US stock market crash on October29, 1929, and ending in 1941 with America's entry into WWII. Great Depression
(Oct. 29, 1929) The day on which the US stock market crashed, plunging the US and international trading systems into crisis and leading the world into the "Great Depression". Black Tuesday
President Franklin Delano Roosevelt's package of government reforms that were enacted during the 1930s to provide jobs for the unemployed, social welfare programs for the poor, and security to the financial markets. New Deal
(1879-1955) German physicist who developed the theory of relativity, which states that space and motion are relative to each other instead of being absolute. Albert Einstein
A centralized and dictatorial form of government, proclaimed by its adherents to be superior to parliamentary democracy and especially effective at mobilizing the masses. Authoritarianism was prominent in the 1930s. authoritarianism
The German "lightning war: strategy used during WWII; the Germans invaded Poland, France, Russia, and other countries with fast-moving well-coordinated attacks using aircraft, tanks and other armored vehicles, followed by infantry Blitzkrieg
Policy pursued by Western governments in face of German, Italian, and Japanese aggression. Attempted to accommodate and negotiate peace with aggressive nations to avoid another global war. appeasement
The Basque town bombed by German planes in April 1937 during the Spanish Civil War. It is also the subject of Picasso's famous painting from the same year Guernica
French port on the English Channel where British and French forces retreated in face of the German military. Between May 27 and June 4, 1940 the Royal Navy evacuated over 300,000 troops using commercial and pleasure boats. Dunkirk
(1874-1965) The British prime minister who led the country during WWII. He also coined the phrase "Iron Curtain" in a speech at Westminster College in 1946. Winston Churchill
The American Navy base in Hawaii that was bombed by the Japanese on December 7, 1941, which brought the US into WWII. Pearl Harbor
A government that has little power in the international arena and follows the dictates of their more powerful neighbors or patrons. puppet state
The codename for Hitler's invasion of the Soviet Union. Operation Barbarossa
The Nazi concentration camp in Poland that was designed to systematically murder Jews and gypsies. Between 1942 and 1944 over one million people were killed here. Auschwitz-Birkenau
All-out war involving civilian populations as well as military forces, often used in reference to WWII. total war
(June 6, 1944) Date of the Allied ivasion of Normandy under General Dwight Eisenhower to liberate Western Europe from German occupation. D-Day
Battlefront between Berlin and Moscow during WWI and WWII. Eastern Front
The secret US government research project in Los Alamos, New Mexico, to develop the first nuclear bomb. The first test of a nuclear bomb was near Los Alamos on July 16, 1945. Manhattan Project
Japanese port devastated by an atomic bomb on August 6, 194. Hiroshima
Second Japanese city on which the United States dropped an atomic bomb. The attack took place on August 9, 1945; the Japanese surrendered shortly thereafter, ending WWII. Nagasaki
Created by: cadell1066