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BNS 107 Week 4

Structure of the Nervous System

Nerve bundled axons that form neural "cables" connecting the central nervous system with muscles, glands, and sense organs
Trigger Zone sensitive part of an axon where an action potential is generated
Action Potential a neural impulse; a brief electrical charge that travels down an axon
Nucleus The control center of the cell that contains DNA
Cerebral Hemispheres the two sections of the cortex on the left and right sides of the brain
Arachnoid membrane middle layer of the three membranes (meninges) that surround the brain and spinal cord
Ventricle cavities in brain which develop from the hollow interior of the nervous system
Sulcus Groove/space between two gyri
Visual Cortex The visual processing areas of cortex in the occipital and temporal lobes.
Lobes of the brain frontal, parietal, occipital, temporal
Limbic system neural system (including the hippocampus, amygdala, and hypothalamus) located below the cerebral hemispheres; associated with emotions and drives.
Thalamus receives information from all sensory systems except olfaction (smell)
Pineal Gland secretes melatonin, a hormone that induces sleep.
Midbrain structures have secondary roles in vision, hearing, and movement. Superior colliculi and the inferior colliculi
Blood-Brain barrier limits passage between bloodstream and the brain, provides constant protection from toxic substances and from neurotransmitters circulating in the blood
Tract bundle of axons in CNS
Ganglion group of cell bodies in PNS
Cortex outer surface of brain
Cerebrospinal fluid carries material from blood vessels to the CNS and transports waste materials in the other direction
Forebrain - Cerebral hemispheres: large, wrinkled structures dominating brain’s appearance. - Longitudinal fissure: division running length of the brain separating cerebral hemispheres.
Gyrus each ridge in surface of the brain
Motor Cortex an area at the rear of the frontal lobes that controls voluntary movements
Prefrontal Cortex the frontmost portion of the frontal lobes, especially prominent in humans; important for attention, working memory, decision making, appropriate social behavior, and personality
Basal Ganglia a set of subcortical structures that directs intentional movements
Hypothalamus plays major role in controlling emotion and motivated behaviors.
Corpus Callosum band of fibers that carry information between brain hemispheres.
Hindbrain Made up of the pons, Reticular formation, Medulla, Cerebellum.
What are the basic functions of the thalamus and hypothalamus? Thalamus: Collect, Sort, and Direct sensory impulses to particular areas of the brain Hypothalamus: Maintains Homeostasis
Why does the brain have ventricles (hollow spaces)? The fluid-filled ventricles help keep the brain buoyant and cushioned.
How do we know certain regions of the brain have specific functions? When certain parts of the brain are stimulated with an electrical current, different parts of the body are affected, such as speech, sight, etc.
What are groups of neuron cell bodies called in the PNS versus in the CNS? CNS: Nucleus PNS: Ganglion
What are bundles of axons called in the PNS vs in the CNS? CNS: Tracts PNS: Nerves
What are the major regions (lobes) of the brain and what are their functions? Frontal lobe: reasoning, motor control, language, emotion, and personality Temporal Lobe: hearing, memory. emotion, and language Parietal lobe: processing information from the body's senses Occipital lobe: vision
Created by: Lee543
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