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Barrons ap 2

maps, scale, space, and place

Absolute distance the distance that can be measuredwith a standard unit of length
absolute location the exact position of an object or place, measured within the coordinates of a grid system
Accessibility The relative ease with which a destination may be reached from some other place
Azimuthal projection a map projection in which the plane is the most developable surface
Breaking point the outer edge of a city`s sphere of influence, used in the law of retail gravitation to describe the area of a city`s hinterlands that depend on that city for its retail supply
Cartograms A type of thematic map that transforms space such that the political unit with the greatest value for some type of data is represented by the largest relative area
chloropleth map A thematic map that uses tones or colors to represent spatial dataas average values per unit area
cognitive map An image of a portion of the earths surface that an individual creates in his or her mind
complementarity the actual or potential relationship between two places usualy refering to economic interactions
connectivity the degree of economic, social cultural, or political connection between two places
contagious diffusion the spread of a disease, innovation, or cultural trait through direct contact with another person or place
coordinate system A standard grid, composed of lines of lattitude and longitude, used to determine the absolute location of any object on es surface
distance decay effect the decrease in interaction between two phenomena, places, or people as the distance between them increases
Dot maps Thematic maps that use points to show the precise locations of specific observations and occurences
Expansion diffusion the spread of phenomena to surrounding areas through contact and exchange
Friction of distance A measure of how much absolute distance affects the interaction between two places
fuller projection a type of map projection that maintains the accurate size and shape of landmasses but completely rearanges direction such that the four cardinal directions have no meaning
geoid the actual shape of the earth wich is rough and oblate
gravity model a mathematical formula that describes the level of interaction between two places based on the size of their populations and their distance apart
hazards anything in the landscape real or perceived that is potential threatening
hierarchical diffusion a type of diffusion in which something is transmitted between places because of something the places have in common
international date line the line of longitude that marks where each new day begins, centered on the 180th meridian
interveneing oppurtunnities the idea that one place has a demand for some good or service and 2 places have a supply of equal price and quality then the closer of the two suppliers to the buyer will represent an intervening oppurtunity
isoline map line that connects points of equal or very similar values
Large scale a relatively small ration between map units and ground units.Large scale maps usually have a higher resolution and cover much smaller regions than large scale maps
Lattitude The angular distance north or south of the equater, defined by lines of lattitude or parallels
Law of retail gravitation Law that states that people will be drawn to larger cities to conduct their business because larger cities have a wider influence on the hinterlands around them
Location charts on a map a chart or graph that gives specific statistical information of a particular political unit or jurisdiction
Longitude the angular distance east or west of the prime meridian, defined by lines of longitude or meridians
Map projection A mathematical method that involves transfering the earths sphere onto a flat surface. All map projections have distortions
Mercator projection a True conformal cylindrical map projection , this projection is particularly useful for navigation because it mantains accurate direction, famouis for its severe size distortion near the poles
meridian A line of longitude that runs north-south .All lines of longitude are equal in length and intersect at the poles
parallel An east-west line of lattitude that runs parallel to th equater and that marks distance north or south of the equater
preference map a map that displays individual preferences for certain places
prime meridian an imaginary line passing through the royal observatory in Greenwich, England, which marks the 0 degree lne of longitude
proportional symbols map A thematic map in which the size of a chosen symbol indicates the relative magnitude of some statistical value for a given geographic region
Reference map a map type that shows reference info for a particular place, whcihc makes it useful for finding landmarks and navigating
relative distance a measure of distance that includes the costs of overcoming the friction of absolute distance seperating two places. Often describes the amount of connectivity between the two places
Relative location the position of a place relative to places around it
relocation diffusion the diffusion of phenomena through migration from one place to another
Resolution A maps smallest discernable unit
robinson projection projection that attempts to balance several possible projection does not completely accurately mantain area shape distance or direction but it minimizes errors in each
scale the ratio between the size of an area on a map and the actual size of that same area on the earths surface
site the absolute location of a place, described by local releif, landforms and other cultural physical characteristics
situation the relative location of a place in relation to the physical and cultural characteristics of the surrounding area and the connections and interdependencies within that system;a places spatial context
small-scale map scale ratio in which the ratio of units on the map to units on the earth is quite small. usually depist large areas
spatial diffusion spatial diffusion refers to the ways in which phenomena such as technological innovations, cultural trends, or even outbreaks of disease travel over space
thematic map a type of map that displays one or more variables such as population or income level within a specific area
time-space convergence the idea that distance between some places is actually shrinking as technology allows more rapid cummunication and increased cummunication in those places
Topographic maps maps that use isolines to represent constant elevations.
Topological space the amount of connectivity between places regardless of the absolute distance seperating them
transferability the costs involved in moving goods from one place to another
visualization use of sophisticated software to create dynamic computer maps, some of which are three dimensional or interactive
Created by: Albinder
Popular AP Human Geography sets




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