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Understanding EKGs-2

Based on the book by Beasley, 2nd Edition

Freshly oxygenated blood traveling through the aortic valve also enters the ________ ______ during diastole when the aortic valve closes to accomplish myocardial oxygenation. Coronary arteries
What is the VITAL function that occurs in the 2nd or middle component of pulmonary circulation? gas exchange
What is characterized by gas exchange? Carbon dioxide is exchanged for oxygen in the pulmonary alveolar-capillary network.
What is the cardiac cycle? The cardiac cycle is the actual time sequence between ventricular contraction and ventricular relaxation.
What is systole or ventricular systole? Systole or ventricular systole is simultaneous contraction of the ventricle.
What is diastole? Diastole is synonymous with ventricular relaxation.
Why does the heart function as a unit? The heart functions as a unit because both atria contract simultaneously, then both ventricles contract.
What happens when the atria contract? The ventricles are filled with blood to their limit.
What happens when simultaneous contraction of the ventricles occur? Blood is ejected into the pulmonary and systemic circulations systems.
During ventricular contraction, what is occuring to the mital (bicuspid) and tricuspid valves and the the pulmonic and aortic valves? The mital (bicuspid) and tricuspid valves are closed by the pressure of the contraction, while the pulmonic and aortic values open.
How much blood fills the ventricles during ventricular diastole? 70% of the blood that has collected in the atria fills the ventricles during ventricular diastole.
What happens to the remaining 30% of the blood? The active contraction of the atria propels the remaining 30% of the blood into the ventricles.
What happens during periods of ventricular relaxation? Cardiac filling and coronary perfusion occur passively.
How often does one (1) cardiac cyle occur? One (1) cardiac cyle occurs every 0.8 seconds.
How long does systole last? Systole lasts about 0.28 seconds.
How long does diastole last? Diastole lasts about 0.52 seconds.
What is stroke volume? Stroke volume is the volume of blood pumped out of one ventricle of the heart in a single beat or contraction.
How much stroke volume occurs per beat? 70 cc (cubic centimeters or millileters) per beat
What is the definition of heart rate? The heart rate is the number of contractions (or beats) per minute of the heart.
What is the normal adult heart rate? The normal adult heart rate is 60 - 100 beats per minute.
What is the amount of blood pumped by the left ventricle in 1 minute? Cardiac output is the amount of blood pumped by the left ventricle in 1 minute.
True or False: Ventricle outputs are considered normally equal. ... and why? True - because the ventricles contract simultaneously.
What is the formula for determining cardiac output? Cardiac Output (CO) = Stroke Volume (SV) x Heart Rate (HR)
What happens when a patients cardiac output is outside of the normal range? When a patients cardiac output is outside the normal range, the heart will try to balance it by changes in either the stroke volume or the heart rate.
Based on the formula, what is the cardiac output for a patient who has 80 beats per minute (bpm) and a stroke volume of 70 cc per beat? The cardiac output is 5600 cc per minute (or 5.6 liters per minute).
What is the pressure in the ventricles at the end of diastole? Preload
What is the resistance against which the heart must pump? Afterload
What is Starling's law of the heart? The more the myocardial fibers are stretched, up to a certain point, the more forceful the subsequent contraction.
What is the amount of opposition to blood flow offered by the arterioles? Peripheral vascular resistance (PVR)
What determines peripheral vascular resistance? Vasoconstriction and vasodilation
What is the formula to determine blood pressure? Blood pressure (BP) = Cardiac Output (CO) x Peripheral Vascular Resistance (PVR)
What does the autonomic nervous system regulate? The autonomic nervous system regulates functions of the body that are involuntary or not under conscious control.
What is the sympathetic nervous system responsible for? The sympathetic nervous system is responsible for preparation of the body for physical activity (i.e. "fight or flight")
What is the built-in control center for the body that maintains homeostatis or equalibrium? The autonomic nervous system.
What are the two divisions of the autonomic nervous system? The two divisions of the autonomic nervous system are the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system.
What is the definition of innervate? To supply (an organ or a body part) with nerves
What is innervated by both the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system? The majority of organs
What is ONLY innervated by the sympathetic nervous system? Blood vessels
What portion of our body is regulated by the calmer functions (rest and digest) of our existence? Hint: It is a system. Parasympathetic nervous system
What is secreted from the nerve endings of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems? Neurotransmitters are secreted from the nerve endings of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems.
How many types of receptor fibers are located at the nerve endings in the sympathetic nervous system? Two (2)
What are the two receptor fibers at the nerve endings in the sympathetic nervous system? The receptors are the alpha- and beta-receptors.
What is the chemical neurotransmitter for the sympathetic nervous system? Norepinephrine
What is the chemical neurotransmitter for the parasympathetic nervous system? Acetylcholine
The nerve endings in the sympathetic nervous system are called ____________. Adrenergic
What happens in the sympathetic nervous system when norepinephrine is released? The heart rate increases and contractile force of cardiac fibers and vasoconstriction will result.
What is the chemical neurotransmitter for the parasympathetic nervous system? Acetylecholine
What are the nerve endings in the parasympathetic nervous system? Cholinergic
All the body's blood vessels have alpha-adrenergic receptors except _____________. Capillaries
What kind of receptors does the heart and lungs have? The heart and lungs have beta-adrenergic receptors.
What is the definition of vaso? Vaso = Blood vessel
What pertains to the sympathetic nerve fibers of the autonomic nervous system that use epinephrine or epinephrine-like (norepinephrine) substances as neurotransmitters? Adrenergic
What reactive site on the cell surface or within the cell combines with a drug molecule to produce a physiological effect? Receptor
What pertains to the parasympathetic nerve fibers of the autonomic nervous system that use acetylcholine as the neurotransmitter? Cholinergic
What is caused by vasoconstriction? An increase in blood pressure
What is caused by beta 1 receptors? 1. Increase in Heart Rate2. Increase in contractility
What is caused by beta 2 receptors? 1. Bronchial dilation2. Vasodilation
Pertaining to the adrenergic receptors and their effects on heart rate, what does A B C D stand for? A B C D = Alpha Constricts Beta Dilates
Created by: LoreFD



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