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Chpt.10 Nervous sys


acetylcholine neurotransmitter chemical released at the ends of some nerve cells
arachnoid memebrane middle layer of the three membranes (meninges) that surround the brain and spinal cord.
astrocyte a type of glial (neuroglial) cell; connective, supporting cell of the nervous system. Transport water and salts from capillaries
autonomic nervous system nerves that control involutary body functions of muscles, glands and internal organs
axon microscopic fiber that carries the nervous impulse along a nerve cell
blood-brain barrier blood vessels (capillaries) that selectively let certain substances enter the brain tissue and keep other substances out
brain stem lower portion of the brain that connects the cerebrum with the spinal cord. (pons and medulla)
cauda equina collection of spinal nerves below the end of the spinal cord
cell body part of the nerve cell that contains the nucleus
central nervous system (CNS) brain and spinal cord
cerebellum part of the brain that coordinates muscle movements and maintains balance
cerebral cortex outer region of the cerebrum; containing sheets of nerve cells; gray matter of the brain
cerbrospinal fluid (CFS) fluid that circulates throughout the brain and spinal cord
cerebrum lagest part of the brain; responsible for voluntary muscular activity, vision, speech, taste, hearing, thought and memory
dendrite microscopic branching fiber of a nerve cell that is the first part to recieve the nervous impulse
dura mater thick, outermost layer of the meninges surrounding and protectiong the brain and spinal cord
ependymal cell a cell that lines the fluid-filled sacs of the brain and spinal cord
ganglion a collection of nerve cell bodies in the peripheral nervous system
glial cell (neuroglia) cells in the nervous system that do not carry impulses but are supportive and connective in function
gyrus sheets of nerves cells that produce elevation in the surface of the cerebral cortex; convolution
hypothalamus portion of the brain beneath the thalamus; controls sleep, appetite, body temperature, and secretions from the pituitary gland
medulla oblongata the part of the brain just above the spinal cord; controls breathing, heartbeat and the size fo blood vessels; nerve fibers cross over here
meninges three protective membranes that surround the brain and spinal cord
microglial cell one type of glial cell ( phagocyte)
motor nerves carry messages away from the brain and spinal cord to muscles and organ; efferent nerves
myelin sheath fatty tissue that surrounds, protects and insulates the axon of a nerve cell
nerve macroscopic structure consisting of axons and dendrites in bundles like strands of rope
neuron a nerve cell; carries impulses throughout the body.
neurotransmitter chemical messenger, released at the end of a nerve cell. It stimulates or inhibits another cell, which can be a nerve cell, muscle cell or gland cell
oligodendroglial cell glial cell that forms the myelin sheath covering axons
parasympathetic nerves involuntary, autonomic nerves that help regulate body functions idle heart rate and respiration
parenchyma essential distingushing cells of an organ
peripheral nervous system nerves outside the brain and spinal cord; cranial, spinal and autonomic nerves
pia mater thin, delicate inner membrane of the meninges
plexus large interlacing network of nerves
pons part of the brain anterior to the cerebellum and between the medulla and the rest of the brain. It is a bridge connecting various parts of the brain
receptor organ that receives a nervous stimulation and passes it on to nerves within the body. the skin, ears, and taste buds are examples
sensory nerves carry messages to the brain and spinal cord from a receptor; afferent nerves.
stimulus change (light, sound, touch) in the internal or external environment that evokes a response
stroma connective and supporting tissue of an organ e.g. glial cells
sulcus depression or groove in the surface of the cerebral cortex tissue
sympathetic nerves autonomic nerves that influence body function involuntarily in times of stress
synapse the space (juncture through which a nervous impulse is transmitted from one neuron to another or from a neuron to another cell such as a muscle or gland cell
thalamus main relay center of the brain
ventricles of the brain reservoirs (canals) in the interior of the brain that contain cerebrospinal fluid
Created by: joe3162