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A&PII.M5.Respiratory

Module 5 Chapter 22 and other resources notes --> flashcards

QuestionAnswer
Main function of respiratory system supply the body with oxygen and dispose of carbon dioxide.
Four processes collectively called "respiration" 1. pulmonary ventilation 2. external repiration 3. transport of repiratory gases 4. internal repiration
What other system is associated with the respiratory system The respiratory system is associated with the circulatory system closely.
The respir. system is associated with the senses of ___ and ___. smell and taste
Identify the organs forming the respiratory passageway( s) in descending order until the alveoli are reached. The respiratory system includes the nose, nasal cavity, and paranasal sinuses; the pharynx; the larynx; the trachea; the bronchi and their smaller branches; and the lungs, which contain the terminal air sacs, or alveoli
Describe the structure of the nose (divisions) external nose internal nasal cavity
What are the 5 functions of the nose? 1. provides an airway for respiration 2. moistens and warms entering air 3. filters and cleans inpired air 4. serves as a resonating chamber for speech 5. houses olfactory smell receptors
What are the surface features of the external nose? root bridge dorsum nasi apex philtrum nostrils (nares) alae
What is the skeletal framework that fashions the nose? superiorly - nasal and frontal bones laterally - maxillary bones inferiorly - flexible plates of hyaline cartilage
The internal nasal cavity lies ___ and ___ to the external nose. in posterior
What are the flexible plates of hyaline cartilage that fashion the nose inferiorly? ( the alar and septal cartilages, and the lateral processes of the septal cartilage)
the nasal and frontal bones superiorly forming the ___ and ___, respectively), of the nose bride root
What is the "hard plate" where the palate is supported by the palatine bones and processes of the maxillary bones,
Each day, mucus and serous glands secrete about ___ of mucus containing ___. 1 quart (or 1 liter) lysozyme
What is lysozyme? antibacterial enzyme
The epithelial cells of the of the respiratory mucosa secrete mucus defensins
what comprises the respiratory zone? composed of the respiratory bronchioles alveolar ducts alveoli all microscopic structures
What are defensins p807 natural antibiotics that help get rid of invading microbes
The high water content of the mucus helps to ___. p807 humidify the inhaled air
What triggers the sneeze reflex? irritants coming in contact with the richly supplied sensory nerve endings of the nasal mucosa
Protruding medially from each lateral wall of the nasal cavity are three scroll- like mucosa- covered projections, called the ___, ___, and ___ superior middle inferior nasal conchae
How do the nasal conchae function to heat incoming air? cool exhaled air? RA!
Define rhinitis inflammation of the nasal mucosa accompanied by excessive mucus production nasal congestion postnasal drip
what causes sinusitis nasal infections of the nasal mucosa because the nasal mucosa extends tenticle-like into the nasolicrimal (tear) ducts and paranasal sinuses
The pharynx connects the ___ and the ___ nasal cavity and mouth (superiorly) to the larynx and esophagus (inferiorly)
during swallowing, what closes of the entrance to the nasopharynx uvula
uvula means "little grape"
Where is the nasopharyx located? p809 posterior to the nasal cavity inferior to the sphenoid bone and superior to the level of the soft palate
What type of epithelium makes up the nasopharynx? p809 pseu-dostratified ciliated epithelium
What traps and destroys pathogens entering the nasopharynx in air? p809 pharyngeal tonsil (adenoids)
What is the function of the tubal tonsils p809 help protect the middle ear against infections likely to spread from the na-sopharynx.
The oropharynx lies ___ to the oral cavity and is continuous with it through an archway called the ___ p809 posterior isthmus of the fauces
True or false: Both inhaled air and swallowed food pass through the oropharynx p809 True
What type of epithelium is in the oropharynx stratified squamous epithelium
What does the structural change from the nasopharynx epithelium to the oropharynx epithelium do? the change from pseudostratified columnar to stratified squamous epithelium accomodates the increased friction and greater chemical trauma accompanying food passage
Where do the respiratory and digestive pathways diverge? at the larynx
What is known as the "voice box" larynx
What are the 3 functions of the larynx? 1. provide an open airway 2. act as a switching mechanism to route air and food to the proper channels 3. voice production
What houses the vocal cords? larynx
True or false: All laryngeal cartilages are hyaline cartilages p810 false - the epiglottis is not hyaline cartilage
The thyroid cartilage is formed by two ___ cartilage plates
What forms the lateral and posterior walls of the larynx? 3 pairs of small cartilages: 1. arytenoid 2. cuneiform 3. corniculate cartilages
___ ___ containing mucosa cover the epiglottis p811 taste bud
What type of cartilage comprises the epiglottis p811 elastic cartilage
True or false: The cough reflex works all the time p811 False - The cough reflex does not work when a person is unconscious
During ___, the larynx is pulled ___ and the epiglottis tips to cover the ___ inlet. swallowing superiorly laryngeal
Vocal cords lack ___ ___, causing them to appear pearly white. blood vessels
___ ligaments, composed largely of ___ ___ form the core of mucosal folds called the ___ ___ p811 vocal elastic fibers vocal cords
What is the function of the false vocal cords? p811 help close the glottis when we swallow
What is another name for the false vocal cords? p811 vestibular folds
The superior portion of the larynx, an area subject to food contact, is lined by ___ ___ ___. p811 stratified squamous epithelium
A dust filter (above, below) the vocal folds is composed of ___ ___ ___ epithelium. p811 below pseudostratified ciliated columnar
the cilia in the larynx directs mucus (toward, away from) the lungs p811 away from
Speech involves the ... p811 intermittent release of expired air and the opening and closing of the glottis
The length of the vocal folds and the size of the glottis change with the action of the intrinsic laryngeal muscles that clothe the cartilages
What contributes to vocal resonance? the entire length of the pharynx acts as a resonating chamber to amplify and enhance sound quality also the oral, nasal, and sinus cavities contribute to vocal resonance
What happens when the vocal cords are inflamed? change in the voice tone, hoarseness, or in p812 severe cases inability to speak above a whisper
Define Valsalva's manuever During abdominal straining associated with defecation, the glottis closes to prevent exhalation and the abdominal muscles p812 contract, causing the intra- abdominal pressure to rise
What is the effect of Valsalva's manuever help empty the rectum and can also splint ( p812 stabilize) the body trunk when one lifts a heavy load
The trachea or ___, descends from the ___ through the neck and into the ___. p812 windpipe larynx mediastinum
What are the layers of the tracheal wall? p812 mucosa submucosa adventitia
Smoking inhibits and ultimately destroys ___ p813 cilia
How many "C" rings support the sub___. p813 16 to 20 submucosa
What type of fibers connect the open posterior parts of the cartilage rings of the trachea? connected by smooth mus-cle fibers of the trachealis muscle
The ___ marks the point where the trachea branches p813 carina
The Heimleich manuever is used to clear obstructions of the p813 trachea
What is the branching pattern of the airways called p813 the bronchial (or respiratory tree)
What is the difference between the conducting zone and the respiratory zone RA! = research answer!
Each bronchus runs ___ in the ___ before plunging into the medial depression (___) of the lung on (same/opposite) side p814 obliquely mediastinum hilum same
The trachea divides to form the ___ and the ___ p814 right and left main ( primary) bronchi
Once inside the lungs, each bronchi subdivides to form the ___ bronchi lobar (secondary)
How many lobar bronchi are on the right p814 three (3)
How many lobar bronchi are on the left p814 two (2)
passages smaller than ___ ___ in size are called ___ p814 1 mm bronchioles
How small are terminal bronchioles p814 <0.5mm in diameter
As conducting tubes become smaller, what types of changes occur p814, 815 1. support structures change 2. epithelium type changes 3. amount of smooth muscle increases
Define alveoli p815 thin walled air sacs within the lungs
the respiratory zone begins as... p815 the terminal bronchioles feed into respiratory bronchioles within the lung
What is the difference between alveoli and alveolar sacs? p815 the alveoli are the individual thin walled air sacs the alveolar sacs are the bunches of alveoli
What is the respiratory membrane p815 0.5- µm- thick air- blood barrier that has gas on one side and blood flowing past on the other
The ___, ___, and ___ lung surfaces lie in close contact___ ___ with the ribs and form the continuously curving ___ surface. p815 anterior lateral posterior close contact costal
What connects the lung to the mediastinum? p815 vascular and bronchial attachments
What enters and leaves the lungs through the h_ _ _ _ p815 pulmonary and systemic blood ves-sels, bronchi, lymphatic vessels, and nerves enter and leave the lungs h-i-l-u-m (hilum)
Where is the hilum located? What is it? p815 on the mediastinal surface of each lung it is an indentation
left lung is subdivided into ___ and ___ lobes by the ___ fissure, p815 superior inferior oblique
pq9 Why do the two lungs differ in size and shape? pqa9 p815 because the apex of the heart is slightly to the left of the median plane. The left lung is smaller than the right, and the cardiac notch— a concavity in its medial aspect— is molded to and accommo-dates the heart
Each lobe contains a number of ___-shaped p815 pyramid bronchopulmonary segments
lobules of the lung are shaped like p816 hexagons
In most city dwellers and in smokers, the connective tissue that separates the individual lobules is black-ened with . p816 carbon
the lungs consist of air ___ and ___ p818 spaces stroma
Sys-temic venous blood that is to be oxygenated in the lungs is de-livered by the ___ p818 pulmonary arteries
pulmonary arteries feed into the p818 pulmonary capillary networks
True or false: All of the body's blood passes through the lungs about 10 times per hour p816 false - all the body's blood passes through the lungs about 1 time each minute (60 times per hour)
angiotensin converting enzyme p816 activates an important blood pressure hormone,
Why are the lungs a good location for enzymes to act on the blood p816 because all of the blood passes through the lungs about 1 time each minute
What is the function of plueral fluid p816 This lubricating secretion allows the lungs to glide easily over the thorax wall during our breath-ing movements
PQ1 Which of the following is not involved in respiration? External respiration Pulmonary ventilation Internal respiration External ventilation PQA1 External ventilation
PQ2 The respiratory zone is composed of the trachea and the paranasal sinuses (True/False) pqa2 false
pq3 Which of the following are the hairs within the nasal cavity that filter coarse particles, such as pollen and dust, from inspired air? Cilia Vibrissae Alveoli Microvilli pqa3 Vibrissae
pq4 ____________ is the inflammation of the nasal mucosa accompanied by excessive mucus production, nasal congestion, and postnasal drip. pqa4 Rhinitis
Compartmentalization by the pluera help limit the spread of ___. p819 infections
pq5 list the regions of the pharynx, from superior toinferior? pqa5 Nasopharynx; Oropharynx; Laryngopharynx
pq6 The _________________ is covered by a mucosa containing taste buds, and keeps food out of the lower respiratory passages. pqa6 epiglottis
pq7 The bronchial, or respiratory, tree branches approximately 23 times within the lungs. (True/False) pqa7 True
pq8 The _______ are the site of gas exchange within the lungs. pqa8 alveoli
pq10 The ___________ is the elastic connective tissue found within the lungs. pqa10 stroma
pq11 ________, or lung collapse, is a homeostatic imbalance that occurs when a bronchiole becomes plugged. pqa11 Atelectasis
pq12 What occurs during infant respiratory distress syndrome (IRDS)? (name the item specific to this flashcard) pqa12 The baby is unable to keep his or her alveoli inflated between breaths.
pq13 Henry's law states that the total pressure exerted by a mixture of gases is the sum of the pressures exerted independently by each gas in the mixture. (T/F) pqa13 false
pq14 Henry's law states that when a gas is in contact with a liquid, that gas will dissolve in the liquid in proportion to its partial pressure. (True / False) pqa14 True
pq15 Question 15 0 / 5 points Which form of hypoxia occurs when body cells are unable to use O2 even though adequate amounts are delivered? (This type of hypoxia is usually the consequence of metabolic poisons, such as cyanide.) pqa15 Histotoxic hypoxia
pq16 Which form of CO2 transport accounts for the greatest amount of CO2 transported in blood? pqa16 As bicarbonate ions in plasma
pq17 The increase in ventilation in response to metabolic needs is called ___________. pqa17 hyperpnea
pq18 Emphysema is distinguished by permanent enlargement of the alveoli. (ture / false) pqa18 true
pq19 Lung cancer is among the easiest forms of cancer to successfully treat and cure. True False pqa19 False
pq20.1 Functional residual capacity pqa20.1 Volume of air in lungs after normal tidal expiration
pq20.2 Inspiratory reserve pqa20.2 Volume that can be forced in after a tidal inhalation
pq20.3 Tidal volume pqa20.3 About 500 ml
pq20.4 Total lung capacity pqa20.4 About 6000 ml in an average male
pq20.5 Vital capacity pqa20.5 Maximum volume of air that can be exhaled after maximum inhalation
The lungs consist largely of ___ ___. The balance is called the ___. air spaces stroma
Freshly oxygenated blood is conveyed from the respiratory zones of the lungs to the heart by the ___ ___. p818 pulmonary veins
receive blood from the low- pressure, high- volume pulmonary circulation. p818 alveoli
Parasympathetic fibers ___ the air tubes, whereas the sympathetic nervous system ___ them. p818 constrict dilates
What are the two layers of the pluerae? p818 parietal visceral
Parasympathetic fibers constrict the air tubes, whereas the sympathetic nervous system dilates them. p819 the 3 chambers of the thoracic cavity
symptoms of pluerisy p819 inflamed pluerae become rough stabbing pain with each breath excessive fluid (pluerae, blood, blood filtrate)
respiratory pressures are always described relative to ___ p819 atmospheric pressures
the pressure in the alveoli p819 intrapulmonary pressure
always about 4 mmHg less than intrapulmonary pressure p819 intraplueral pressure
lungs always assume the ___ size possible p819 smallest
the surface tension of the alveolar fluid constantly acts to ____ p819 draw the alveoli to their smallest possible dimension
what force tends to oppose the lung collapsing forces? p819 the natural elasticity of the chest wall which tends to pull the thorax outward and enlarge the chest wall
why is it necessary that the plueral fluid be pumped out of the plueral cavity by the lymphatic system p819 fluids move from high to low pressure because the intraplueral pressure tends to be negative the fluid would accumulate
What pressure keeps the lungs from collapsing? p819 transpulmonary pressure
the greater the ___ pressure, the greater the size of the lungs p819 tranpulomonary pressure
the term for lung collapse p819 atelectasis
___ changes lead to pressure ___. And this leads to the ___ of ___ to equalize the ___ p819 volume changes flow of gases pressure
Boyle's Law P1V1 = P2V2
In Boyle's Law, pressure varies ___ with volume. p819 inversely
the inspiratory muscles p819 1)diaphragm 2)external intercostal muscles
the height of the thoracic cavity ___ as the diaphragm contracts p819 increases
Contraction of the external intercostal muscles lifts the ___ ___ and pulls the sternum ___ p819 rib cage superiorly
The usual volume that enters the lungs when inhaling p819 500mL
Inspiration Step 1 p820 Inspiratory muscles contract ( diaphragm descends; rib cage rises).
Inspiration Step 2 p820 Thoracic cavity volume increases.
Inspiration Step 3 p820 Lungs are stretched; intrapulmonary volume increases.
Inspiration Step 4 p820 Intrapulmonary pressure drops ( to – 1 mm Hg).
Inspiration Step 5 p820 Air ( gases) flows into lungs down its pressure gradient until intrapulmonary pressure is 0 ( equal to atmospheric pressure)
True or False: Quiet expiration in healthy individuals is mostly a passive process p822 True
Forced expiration is an ___ process produced by contraction of ___ ___ muscles, primarily the ___ and ___ muscles. p822 active abdominal wall oblique transversus
the relationship between friction, pressure, and resistance p822 F = (delta P) / R
As in the cardiovascular system, resistance in the res-piratory tree is determined mostly by the diameters of the ___ ___ p823 conducting tubes
the greatest resistance to airflow occurs in the p823 bronchi
histamine causes broncho___ (constriction / dilation) p823 constriction
epinephrine is released during ___ nervous system activation p823 sympathetic
epinephrine ___ bronchioles p823 dilates
a detergent- like complex of lipids and proteins produced by the type II alveolar cells. p823 surfectant
sources of resistance in the airways p823 Local accumulations of mucus, infectious material, or solid tumors in the passage-ways are important sources of airway resistance in those with respiratory disease.
name two treatments for IRDS p823 1)spraying natural or synthetic surfactant into airways 2)devices that maintain a positive airway pressure
lung compliance refers to p824 the ability of the lungs to stretch
Formula for Lung Compliance p824 C(sub-L) = (delta V(sub-L)) / (delta (P(sub-pul) - P(sub-ip))
two factors that largely determine lung compliance p824 ( 1) distensibility of the lung tissue and ( 2) alveolar surface ten-sion.
fibrosis p824 nonelastic scar tissue to replace normal lung tissue
four respiratory volumes of interest (in textbook) p824 tidal inpiratory reserve expiratory reserve residual
how many mL is the residual volume usually p824 1200 mL
respiratory capacities (of mention in textbook) p824 inspiratory capacity functional residual capacity vital capacity total lung capacity
VC or ___ ___ is the sum of p824 vital capacity sum of TV, IRV, ERV
Dead space to body weight rule of thumb p824 The rule of thumb is that the anatomical dead space volume in a healthy young adult is equal to 1 ml per pound of ideal body weight
Spirometry is most useful for p825 evaluating losses in respiratory function and for following the course of certain respiratory dis-eases
True or False: Alveolar ventilation rate is a more effective measure of effective ventilation than minute ventilation p826 True
increasing the volume of each inspiration ( breathing depth) enhances AVR and gas exchange more than raising the p826 respiratory rate
Dalton's Law of Partial Pressurs states that the total pressure exerted by a mixture of gases is the sum of the pressures exerted intependently by each gas in teh mixtue
Henry's Law p827...when a gas is in contact with a liquid, that gas will dissolve in teh liquid in proportion to its partial pressure
What determines how much of a gas will dissolve in a liquid at any give partial pressure? p827...(1) the solubility of the gas in the liquid...(2) the temperature of the liquid
Write the solubility of the following gases in order from least to greatest solubility in water: N2, CO2, O2. p827...CO2, O2 (1/20 solubility of CO2), N2 (1/2 solubility of O2)
Pulmonary ventilation pq21...Movement of air into and out of the lungs so that gases are continuously changed and refreshed
Transport of respiratory gases pq21...Transport of oxygen from lungs to body cells and carbon dioxide from tissue cells to lungs
Internal respiration pq21...Movement of oxygen from the blood to tissue cells and of carbon dioxide from tissue cells to blood
External respiration Movement of oxygen from the lungs to the blood and of carbon dioxide from the blood to the lungs
Respiratory zone The actual site of gas exchange
Conducting zone The fairly rigid conduits for air to reach the gas exchange sites
pharynx Commonly called the throat; air leaves the nose and enters here en route to the lungs
Nasal cavity Secretes mucus and antibacterial enzymes; traps dust, bacteria, and warms air during inspiration
Larynx Contains vocal cords that produce speech; called the voice box
Trachea Descends from the larynx as a single tube reinforced with cartilage rings before it divides to go to each lung
Bronchi Major branches of the cartilage-reinforced tube that go to each lung
Alveoli Terminal branches of the lungs where respiratory gas exchange occurs
Partially saturated hemoglobin One, two, or three oxygen molecules are bound to heme groups
Saturated hemoglobin Four oxygen molecules are bound to heme groups
Oxygen in the process of combining with heme groups Gas exchange in the lungs
Oxygen leaving heme groups Gas exchange in the tissues
Chronic bronchitis Inhaled irritants lead to chronic excessive mucus production by the mucosa of the lower respiratory passageways and to inflammation and fibrosis of that mucosa
Emphysema Permanent enlargement of the alveoli, accompanied by deterioration of the alveolar walls
Asthma Characterized by episodes of coughing, dyspnea,wheezing, and chest tightness; airways become hypersensitive to irritants due to inflammation
Lung cancer Associated with cigarette smoking; constant irritation of cilia are overwhelmed and eventually stop functioning;mutations occur in cells causing uncontrolled growth
Single tube with C rings of cartilage Trachea
Paired tubes with C rings of cartilage Primary bronchi
Three in the right lung; two in the left; plates of cartilage Secondary bronchi
Ten in each lung; small amounts of cartilage; smooth muscle dominates Tertiary bronchi
Many small tubes of less than 1 mm in diameter; smooth muscle only in the walls; no cartilage Bronchioles
Air moves into the lungs because: the gas pressure in the lungs becomes lower than the outside pressure as the diaphragm contracts
Alveolar ventilation rate is: the movement of air into and out of the alveoli during a particular time
Hemoglobin has a tendency to release oxygen where: pH is more acidic
In the alveoli, the partial pressure of oxygen is ____________________ about 104 mmHg
Most of the carbon dioxide transported by the blood is: converted to bicarbonate ions and transported in plasma
The elastic cartilage that shields the opening to the larynx during swallowing is the: epiglottis
The movement of air into and out of the lungs is called pulmonary ventilation
This tissue lines the trachea Pseudostratified columnar epithelium
Which respiratory measurement is normally the greatest? Vital capacity
Which respiratory structure has the smallest diameter? Bronchiole
Involuntary hyperventilation during an anxiety attack can cause the person to become faint because of: lowered CO2 levels in the blood and consequent constriction of cerebral blood vessels.
Which of the following gases has no effect in the blood until hyperbaric conditions occur? nitrogen, carbon monoxide, helium, carbon dioxide, oxygen: nitrogen
Which of the following terms describes the increase in depth and force of breathing that occurs during vigorous exercise? Hyperpnea
Approximately 20% of carbon dioxide is transported in the blood as: carbaminohemoglobin
Which of the following controls the respiratory rate? Medulla
Which of the following is NOT a function of the conducting zone? Gas exchange
True or False: Loudness of voice depends on the size of the vocal cords. False
Some facts about voice production The larynx enlarges in males during puberty..The glottis is wide when deep tones are produced..The more tense the vocal cords, the higher the pitch.
True or False: the trachealis muscle prevents the trachea from collapsing and keeps it patent, despite the pressure changes that take place during breathing False
Some functions of the trachealis muscle: It helps expel mucus during coughing..It allows the esophagus to expand anteriorly when food is swallowed..It decreases the diameter during expiration to expel air with a greater force
An example of an enzyme located in the lung capillary membrane that acts on material in the blood is: angiotensin converting enzyme
Which of the following is an enzyme located in the lung capillary membrane that acts on material in the blood: prostoglandins, renin, interferon none of these
______________ pressure keeps the air spaces in the lung open transpulmonary
Which of the following conditions would NOT cause atelectasis?Plugging of the bronchioli..A chest wound that perforates..the pleura and allows air into the pleural cavity..Pneumonia smoking
Airway resistance is insignificant in relationship to gas flow because: the airways branch more as they get smaller, resulting in a huge total cross-sectionalarea
The transpulmonary pressure is the difference between the ____________ and the __________ pressure. intrapulmonary..intrapleural
True or False: An increase in lung compliance would NOT decrease the total respiratory compliance? True
True or False: Yawning, a non-respiratory movement, would ventilate all of the alveoli? True
Would any of the following non-respiratory movements ventilate all of the alveoli? sneezing, hiccups, crying no
Learn the correct answer in ()..All of the following would be caused by breathing excessively high concentrations of oxygen for a long period of time, except: production of huge amounts of free radicals...oxygen toxicity..(increased mental function)..coma.
The following non-respiratory movements is caused by irritation of the diaphragm? hiccups
The dorsal respiratory group: is located dorsally at the root of cranial nerve IX.
The pontine respiratory group is responsible for all of the following functions smoothing out the transition from inspiration to expiration...regulating and modifying the activity of the medullary neurons..causing apneustic breathing if it is damaged.
The pontine respiratory group is not responsible for the following function stimulating the contraction of the diaphragm
__ loss is not found in a "blue bloater"? Weight
Name 3 things found in a blue bloater cyanosis..pulmonary hypertension..right-sided heart failure
True or False..External respiration refers to gas exchange between the blood and the alveoli True
True or False..If intrapulmonary pressure and intrapleural pressure equalize, atelectasis will occur True
True or False..The most prevalent gas in the atmosphere is oxygen False
True or False..The transpulmonary air pressure is greatest during initial inspiratory events False
True or False..Without the secretions of the type II alveolar cells, the lungs would collapse between breaths True
True or False..During fetal life the lungs are filled with fluid and all respiratory exchanges are made by the placenta True
True or False..The respiratory rate increases from birth until adulthood False
True or False..An increase in temperature of the blood will decrease Hb affinity for O2 True
True or False..Most oxygen is transported in the blood as oxyhemoglobin, while most carbon dioxide is transported as carbaminohemoglobin False
True or False..An increase in carbon dioxide in the blood will cause a slight increase in H+ concentration (drop in pH) True
True or False..The dorsal respiratory group is the expiratory center False
True or False..The intestines is an accessory organ of the digestive system False
Name three accessory organs of the digestive system teeth..salivary glands..tongue
The major site for nutrient absorption is the ____. small intestine
True or False..The primary goal of digestive tract regulatory mechanisms is to optimize nutrient breakdown and absorption. True
The serous membrane that covers the external surface of most digestive organs is called the ___. visceral peritoneum
_______ circulation collects nutrient-rich blood from the GI tract and delivers it to the liver. hepatic portal
Serosa Protective outermost layer of the alimentary canal
Mucosa Main site of nutrient absorption
Submucosa Moderately dense connective tissue that has a rich supply of blood, lymphatic vessels, and nerve fibers
Muscularis externa Responsible for segmentation and peristalsis
Saliva contains enzymes that break down proteins. False
The permanent dentition consists of _____ teeth in a full set. 32
A weak gastroesophageal sphincter can result in heartburn. True
The stomach chemically digests carbohydrates False
Give 3 functions of the stomach serves as a temporary holding area for ingested food..chemically digests carbohydrates..mechanically digests food
The phases of gastric secretion from first to last are: cephalic phase, gastric phase, intestinal phase
The increased concentration of HCO3^(-) in blood draining from the stomach is called __________. the alkaline tide
The_________ is the first segment of the small intestine duodenum
Digestion of carbohydrates and proteins by brush border enzymes occurs within the ________ of the small intestine. microvilli
Bile is stored and concentrated in the____. gallbladder
the liver has 3 lobes False
Give 3 characteristics of the liver stores glucose..highly regenerative..role in detoxifying the blood
Cholecystokinin (CCK).._______ is found in pancreatic secretions... False
Give 3 chemicals..found in pancreatic secretions... Bicarbonate..Chymotrypsinogen..Procarboxypeptidase
Most digestion occurs in the small intestine. False
Most water is absorbed in the ________. large intestine
Are the following produced by bacteria flora in the large intestine: vitamin K..CO2..B vitamins: No
Intrinsic Factor is produced by bacterial flora in the large intestine True
Diarrhea results when food passes too quickly through the large intestine. True
Lipids Fatty acids and monoglycerides
Proteins Amino acids
Carbohydrates Monosaccharides
Nucleic acids Nucleotides
Pepsin enzymatically digests _____. protein
Someone on a fat-free diet would not efficiently absorb vitamin D from their diet. True
Chief cell produces an inactive enzyme
islet makes hormones
paneth produces lysozyme
parietal makes intrinsic factor
kupffer phagocytic
Ingestion Taking food into the digestive system
Mechanical Digestion Chewing.. mixing.. churning.. and segmentation of food
Chemical Digestion Enzymatic degradation of foodstuffs into simpler molecules
Absorption Passage of digested materials from the lumen of the GI tract into the blood or lymph
Defecation Elimination of indigestible solids
In direct contact with ingested food Mucosa
Dense connective tissue with many elastic fibers Submucosa
Composed of longitudinal and circular layers of smooth muscle Muscularis
Same structure as the visceral peritoneum Serosa
Parotid gland (oral cavity) Large salivary gland lying near the ear
Sublingual gland (oral cavity) Salivary gland below the tongue
Submandibular gland (oral cavity) Smaller salivary gland located under the jaw
Secures the tongue to the floor of the oral cavity (oral cavity) Lingual frenulum
Rugae (of the stomach) Folds of mucosal layer
Pyloric sphincter (of the stomach) Located at the inferior end and controls stomach emptying
Gastroesophogeal sphincter (of the stomach) Lies at superior end and regulates movement of food from the esophagus
Body (of the stomach) Able to stretch and hold large amounts of food
phases of regulation of gastric secretions Cephalic phase..Gastric phase..Intestinal phase
Cephalic phase Stimulated by the sight or smell of food
Gastric phase Stimulated by distension of the stomach and low acidity
Intestinal phase Stimulated by partially digested proteins and fats
hormones involved in gastric secretion Secretin..CCK..Gastrin..GIP
Secretin Inhibits gastric gland secretions
CCK Increases the secretions of enzyme rich pancreatic juice
Gastrin Stimulated by partially digested proteins in the stomach and..increases gastric gland secretions..
GIP Inhibits gastric gland secretions; released in response to..presence of fatty chyme in the small intestine..
Carbohydrates..organic molecules.. Most is ingested in the form of starch
Lipids..organic molecules.. Triglycerides are the most common in diet
Proteins..organic molecules.. Built of long chains of amino acids
Nucleic acids..organic molecules.. Made up of ribose or deoxyribose sugars and..nitrogenous bases..
Salivary amylase..substances involved in organic molecule digestion.. 1. Begins carbohydrate digestion in the mouth
Sucrase, lactase, and maltase..substances involved in organic molecule digestion.. 2. Digests proteins in the small intestines
Bile..substances involved in organic molecule digestion.. 3. Emulsifies fats for digestion
Sucrase, lactase, and maltase..substances involved in organic molecule digestion.. 4. Brush border enzymes that act on disaccharides
Crown 1. Exposed and covered in enamel
Root 2. Embedded in the jawbone
Cementum 3. Calcified connective tissue around bottom of tooth
Periodontal ligament 4. Forms the support of the gomphosis
In order to prevent self-digestion of the pancreas, activation of pancreatic proteases occurs in the duodenum
During deglutition, the bolus passes into the stomach from the esophagus through the: gastroesophageal sphincter
During the intestinal phase of gastric regulation: the stomach is initially stimulated and later inhibited.
Protective collections of lymphocytes and macrophages occur in: the Peyer's patches.
What is the main organic molecule digested in the stomach? Proteins
The propulsive function that occurs in the esophagus is called: peristalsis.
Which of the following is a characteristic of the large intestine? It contains a large number of bacteria.
the large intestine..It provides absorptive function... True
the large intestine..It is the site for acid neutralization.. False
the large intestine..It has villi.. False
the large intestine..Is longer than the small intestine.. False
Which regulatory chemical stimulates gastric gland activity and motility? Gastrin
Which sequence below represents the correct layering of the wall of the GI tract, starting from..the layer next to the lumen?.. Mucosa, submucosa, muscularis externa, serosa
The hepatopancreatic ampulla is formed from the union of the: bile duct and main pancreatic duct.
What would be the effect of stripping the small intestines of their villi? Decreased surface area for absorption would cause weight loss to occur.
The stomach produces ___ and ___. HCl and intrinsic factor
The final product of carbohydrate digestion is: monosaccharides.
Which of the following cells produce HCl?..Chief cells..Parietal cells..Enteroendocrine cells..G cells..Mucous cells Parietal cells
Which of the following cells produce pepsinogen?..Mucous cells..Parietal cells..Chief cells..G cells..Enteroendocrine cells Chief cells
The digestive system in a cadaver is longer than in a living person because, in a cadaver, there is no ___ ___ muscle tone
________________ is the major means of propulsion in the digestive system. Peristalsis
The short reflexes in the digestive system are stimulated by: the enteric plexuses.
the mesentery..The "omenta" is special name for part of the mesentery... True
the mesentery..It provides a route for blood vessel, lymphatics, and nerves to reach the digestive viscera.. True
the mesentery..It holds the organs of the abdomen in place.. True
the mesentery..It is composed of a layer of serous membrane fused with a layer of mucus membrane.. False
Which of the following is the most common cause of peritonitis? A burst appendix
The myxovirus causes: mumps.
Halitosis is caused by: increased activity of anaerobic bacterial activity at the back of the tongue.
Which of the following teeth are most commonly impacted? Wisdom teeth
Which of the following conditions is directly associated with an increased risk for heart disease..and stroke?.. Periodontitis
The only stomach function that is essential to life is: the secretion of intrinsic factor
The ___________ phase of gastric secretion is considered a conditioned reflex. cephalic
Gastrin is an intestinal hormone that is part of the enterogastrone. False
Give three intestinal hormones that are part of the enterogastrone. Secretin..vasoactive intestinal peptide..Cholecystokinin
Hollow organs, like the stomach, that act as reservoirs exhibit: plasticity.
Many of the early food allergies seen in infants are caused by: absorption of whole proteins.
A condition that affects the large bowel and has no physiological or anatomical cause is: irritable bowel.
Amino-acid absorption is coupled to the active transport of sodium. True
Bile digests fats and related lipids. False
Defecation is mediated by a sympathetic spinal cord reflex. False
In addition to gastrin, the stomach produces serotonin and histamine to regulate smooth muscle..contraction and parietal cells' release of HCl, respectively... True
Portal triads contain a branch of the hepatic artery, hepatic portal vein, and bile duct. False
Protein digestion begins in the oral cavity under the action of salivary peptidase False
The pancreas is a retroperitoneal organ. True
The pyloric sphincter regulates passage of chyme from the stomach into the duodenum True
The vermiform appendix essentially has no purpose. True
Tooth enamel is the hardest substance in the body. True
The hepatopancreatic ampulla is composed of the pancreatic duct and the lesser hepatic duct. False
Give the order of the large intestines: cecum, ascending colon, hepatic flexure, transverse colon..splenic flexure, descending colon, sigmoid colon..
The submucosa is in direct contact with food. False
Digested fats are absorbed into intestinal capillaries. False
The submucosal plexus controls the motility of the digestive tract. False
An adult has 20 teeth. False
Where are digestion fats absorbed? the microvilli of the small intestine where they are absorbed into the epithelial cells of the intestine.
Created by: taddio