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UTSW Neuro Block II

What is the cephalic flexure? bend in the CNS that tilts the axis of the developing brain forward so that ventral refers to below rather than in front of & dorsal referes to above rather than behind
What are the 3 layers of the meninges? outside->in: dura mater, arachnoid mater, pia mater
What are the 5 subdivisions of the CNS (rostral to caudal)? Cerebral hemispheres (telencephalon); diencephalon (diencephalon); brainstem: midbrain (mesencephalon), pons (metencephalon), medulla (myelencephalon); cerebellum (metencephalon); spinal cord
What divides the cerebral hemispheres? deep midline groove called the longitudinal fissure
What joins the cerebral hemispheres? massive bundle of white matter called corpus callosum
What are the irregularly folded ridges & separating clefts on the external surface of the cerebral hemispheres called? ridges: gyri, clefts: sulci
What are the 4 major lobes of the hemispheres? frontal, parietal, temporal, occipital
What are the 4 major sulci visible on the lateral surface of each cerebral hemisphere? lateral (sylvian) fissure, central sulcus, superior temporal sulcus, and pre-occipital notch
What fissure separates the frontal & parietal lobes from the temporal lobe? lateral (sylvian) fissure
What groove separates the frontal & parietal lobes? central sulcus
What sulcus runs inferior & parallel to the lateral fissure? superior temporal sulcus
What indentation on the inferior-lateral aspect of each hemisphere provides the starting point of an imaginary line separating the parietal & temporal lobes from the occipital lobe? pre-occipital notch
Which 2 important gyri are located in the frontal lobe & what are their functions? precentral gyrus = primary motor cortex, inferior frontal gyrus (contains Broca's area in dominant hemisphere = motor control of speech)
In addition to motor functions, what other functions are related to the frontal lobe? personality, insight, affect
What is the main function contained in the parietal lobe? sensory info processing
What are the 3 key gyri & their functions in the parietal lobe? postcentral gyrus = primary sensory cortex, supramarginal gyrus (wraps around end of lateral fissure), angular gyrus (wraps around end of superior temporal sulcus = major role in language development)
Where does the parietal lobe end posteriorly? pre-occipital notch
What is the key gyrus in the temporal lobe? superior temporal gyrus = primary auditory region of cerebral cortex & contains Wernicke's area (speech comprehension)
Where does the temporal lobe end posteriorly? pre-occipital notch
What key function is contained in the occipital lobe? primary visual cortex
What cortical structure is located deep within the lateral fissure & what is its function? insular cortex = sense of taste
What gyri & sulci are located on either side of the longitudinal fissure in the frontal lobe? straight
What lies within the straight sulcus? olfactory tract
What occupies most of the ventral surface of the brain? ventral part of temporal lobes
What are the 2 key ventral temporal lobe structures? parahippocampal gyrus (cortical area overlying hippocampus) with a small medial protrusion called the uncus
What are 4 key ventral landmarks not associated with the temporal lobe? optic nerves/optic chiasm, infundibulum, mammillary bodies (both in hypothalamus), cerebral peduncles (myelinated fibers carrying info from cerebral hemispheres to caudal areas of CNS)
What are 4 major sulci visible in the midline of the brain? congulate sulcus, parieto-occipital sulcus, calcarine sulcus, imaginary vertical line from superior margin of cenral sulcus down to corpus callosum
Which mid-brain gyrus lies within both the frontal & parietal lobes? cingulate gyrus
What role does the cingulate gyrus play in the brain & what other gyrus does it merge with? part of the limbic system (emotion/memory), merges with the parahippocampal gyrus
What key gyri are visible in the frontal lobe with a mid-brain slice? cingulate & straight gyrus
Where is the calcarine cortex & what is its function? in the midline view of the occipital lobe & it lies on either side of the calcarine sulcus, main purpose = primary visual cortex
What connects the cerebral hemispheres & diencephalon with the spinal cord? brainstem
What are the 3 major divisions of the brainstem? midbrain, pons, medulla oblongata
All cranial nerves exit from the brainstem except? olfactory tracts & optic nerves
What are the 4 major landmarks of the midbrain? cerebral peduncles, interpeduncular fossa, cranial nerves 3 & 4, superior/inferior colliculi
What are the prominent, symmetrical collections of myelinated fibers that lie on the ventral-lateral aspect of the mid-brain? cerebral peduncles
What are cerebral peduncles caudal extensions of? the internal capsules
What is the space between the cerebral peduncles called? interpeduncular fossa
What cranial nerve emerges from the interpeduncular fossa? 3 (oculomotor)
Where does the 4th cranial nerve exit the midbrain? the dorsal aspect just below the inferior colliculus
Which is the only cranial that emerges from the posterior side of the brainstem? 4 (trochlear)
What symmetrically paired structures lie on the dorsal surface of the brainstem & what are their roles? superior (control eye movements) & inferior colliculi (control hearing)
What are the 4 major external landmarks of the pons? basal pons, middle cerebellar peduncles, cranial nerves 5-8, fourth ventricle
What area on the ventral pons surface contains descending fibers from cerebral peduncles, neurons, and axons & how do these enter the cerebellum? basal pons; middle cerebellar peduncles
What are the large bundles of white matter that extend from the basal pons into the cerebellum? middle cerebellar peduncles (brachium pontis)
What cranial nerve emerges from the ventral-lateral surface of the basal pons near the brrachium pontis? 5 (trigeminal)
Which cranial nerves emerge from the brainstem in a medial to lateral sequence at a junction between the pons & medulla oblongata? 6 (abducens), 7 (facial), 8 (vestibulocochlear)
Which diamond shaped structure receives CSF from the cerebral aqueduct & lies on the dorsal surfaces of the pons & medulla? fourth ventricle
What are the 2 key landmarks in the medulla oblongata? pyramids & inferior olives
Which vertically oriented columns of white matter lie on the ventral surface of the medulla on either side of the midline & carry descending motor fibers from the primary motor cortex? pyramids
What is the origin of the lateral corticospinal tracts? fibers from the primary motor cortex that cross in the caudal medulla & enter the spinal cord
What are the rounded protuberances that lie just behind the pyramids & over the inferior olivary nucleus? inferior olives
Which cranial nerves emerge in a rostral to caudal sequence from a shallow groove behind the olive? 9 (glossopharyngeal) & 10 (vagus)
Which cranial nerve emerges below the vagus from cervical spinal cord & lower medulla? 11 (spinal accessory) rootlets
Where does the 12th cranial nerve (hypoglossal) exit the medulla oblongata? between the pyramid & the olive
What anchors the cerebellum to the brainstem? 3 paired bundles of white matter called peduncles
What is the surface of the cerebellum composed of? fine parallel ridges called folia
What are the 3 key landmarks of the cerebellum? hemispheres, vermis, flocculi
What accounts for most of the mass of the cerebellum & receives extensive input from the cerebral cortex? hemispheres
What is the midline portion of the cerebellum? vermis
What are the 2 small tufts of cerebellar tissue ventrally adjacent to the middle cerebellar peduncle? flocculi
What makes up the flocculonodular lobe & what is its function? the flocculi + part of the vermis called the nodulus; concerned with balance
What are the 4 key structures in the deep midline cerebral hemisphere? corpus callosum, fornix, septum pellucidum, anterior commissure
What are the 4 divisions of the corpus callosum? splenium, body, genu, rostrum
What curving bundle of myelinated fibers runs beneath the corpus callosum? fornix
Which part of the limbic system connects the hippocampus & mammillary bodies? fornix
What lies at the inferior border of the fornix & allows the lateral cerebral ventricle to communicate with the thrid ventricle? interventricular foramen or foramen of Monro
What membrane lies between the inferior border of the corpus callosum & the superior border of the fornix? septum pellucidum (separates lateral ventricles)
What white matter tract allows portions of the temporal lobes & olfactory structures to communicate? anterior commissure (lies just in front of the fornix)
What are the 4 divisions of the diencephalon? thalamus, subthalamus, hypothalamus, epithalamus
What division of the diencephalon is not visible in the midline? subthalamus
What is the largest component of the diencephalon? thalamus (prominent collection of nuclei just beneath fornix)
What forms the roof of the third ventricle? stria medullaris on medial surface of thalamus
What is a key function of the thalamus? relaying sensory info to the cerebral cortex
What area of gray matter is located just below & slightly anterior to the the thalamus? hypothalamus
What separates the thalamus from the hypothalamus? the hypothalamic sulcus
What connects the hypothalamus to the pituitary stalk? infundibulum
What marks the posterior extent of the hypothalamus? mammillary bodies
What is the key role of the hypothalamus? endocrine system regulation, memory, & control of many autonomic activities
What forms the medial border of the thalamus & hypothalamus? third ventricle
Where does CSF enter & leave the third ventricle from? the lateral ventricles via the foramen of Monro on each side & leaves via the midline cerebral aqueduct
What is the major component of the epithalamus visible on the sagittal surface? pineal gland
What collection of axons from the medial portion of the retina terminate in the nucleus of the the contralateral thalamus? optic chiasm
What are the 3 major internal landmarks of the midbrain? cerebral aqueduct, substantia nigra, red nucleus (last 2 not visible in sagittal section of brain)
What allows CSF to flow from third ventricle to fourth? cerebral aqueduct
What gray matter area part of the limbic system lies in the anterior portion of the temporal lobe just beneath the medial temporal cortical surface? amygdala
What is the caudate nucleus? a homogenous area of gray matter that protrudes into the lateral ventricle (part of basal ganglia involved in initiation & control of movement)
What bundle of white matter fibers forms the lateral border of the caudate nucleus & separates it from the putamen? internal capsule (contains fibers heading towards & leaving the cerebral cortex)
What is the neostriatum? caudate nucleus + putamen
What area of gray matter lies lateral to the internal capsule & is part of the basal ganglia? putamen
What is the claustrum? a delicate sliver of gray matter just lateral to the putamen, separated by external capsule from putamen & from insular cortex by extreme capsule
What extends across the hemispheres at the lower border of the putamen? anterior commissure
What part of the limbic system is an infolded area of the cortex lying in the medial portion of the temporal lobe? hippocampus (plays an important role in formation & maintenance of memories)
What component of the basal ganglia lies medial to the putamen & contains myelinated fibers? globus pallidus
What lies between the globus pallidus & the thalamus? internal capsule
What is the interthalamic adhesion (massa intermedia)? bit o gray matter connecting the thalamic nuclei in one hemisphere with those in the opposite hemisphere in many people
What part of the basal ganglia & diencephalon is just beneath the thalamus coronally? subthalamic nucleus
What is the most caudal component of the basal ganglia? substantia nigra
Where is the red nucleus? rostral midbrain just medial to the substantia nigra
What does the pachymeninx include? dura mater - tightly applied to inner periostium of skull & spinal cord
What does the leptomeninges include? arachnoid mater (spider web-like processes that extend down to pia mater) and pia mater (single cell layer at surface of CNS), subarachnoid space (between arachnoid & pia mater)
What does the subarachnoid space contain? the major blood vessels that give rise to the penetrating branches that enter substance of CNS, and the CSF
Are the spinal meninges continuous with the meninges of the brain? yes
What surrounds the spinal cord with CSF? subarachnoid space
What forms the floor & roof of the fourth ventricle? floor = dorsal pons & medulla, roof = cerebellum
What are the foramina of the neuro ventricular system? interventricular foramen, median aperture of the 4th vetricule (foramen of Magendie), lateral apertures (foramina of Luschka)
What does the foramen of Magendie connect? dorsal 4th ventricle & subarachnoid space around the base of the cerebellum
What do the foramina of Luschka connect? the lateral recesses of the 4th ventricle & subarachnoid space at the lateral junction of the cerebellum and brainstem
What is the central canal? continuation of 4th ventricle in spinal cord, generally not patent in adults
What is CSF? clear, colorless, acellular fluid actively secreted (water, nacl, protein, glucose, and K)
What is the daily formation rate of CSF? 500 ml/day
Where is CSF located? ventricular system (25 ml), subarachnoid space (125 ml)
What is the function of CSF? encases brain & spinal cord & performs shock-absorbing & spatial buffering
What secretes most CSF? choroid plexus
What are the characteristics of the choroid plexus? very vascular, fenestrated capillaries with cuboidal epithelial cells (related to ependyma)
Where is the choroid plexus located? lateral, third, and 4th ventricles, foramina of munro, formanina of luschka into subarachnoid space
What is an alternate source of CSF? metabolic water production & capillary ultrafiltrate
Where is CSF reabsorbed? arachnoid villi
Where does CSF re-enter venous circulation? superior sagittal sinus
How frequently is CSF turned over daily? 3-4x/day
What are commonly measured constituents of CSF in lab anaysis? cells, proteins, glucose; antibody levels, tumor markers
How is CSF obtained for analysis? lumbar puncture (L4-5)
What is myelography? intro of contrast agents directly into CSF allowing radiographic visualization of brain, spinal cord, and nerve roots
What allows differention of CSF from brain parenchyma on MRI? water content
What causes hydrocephalus? obstruction to flow of CSF or overproduction leading to enlargement of ventricular system
What are the 3 barriers between ECF & brain/peripheral nerves? blood-brain, blood-CSF, blood-nerve
What are the key components of the blood-brain barrier? tight junctions between adjacent epithelial cells of CNS capillaries, lacking pinocytic vesicles; astrocytic foot processes that ensheath CNS capillaries
What is the blood-brain barrier permeable to? glucose, a.a., lactate, ribonucleosides, lipid-soluble components, DOPA
What is the blood-brain barrier impermeable to? albumin, protein-bound substances, polar molecules, some antibiotics
What brain regions is the blood-brain barrier absent from? posterior lobe of pituitary gland, pineal gland, circumventricular structures (vascular organ of lamin terminalis, subfornical organ, median eminence of hypothalamus, area postrema)
What disease conditions can cause breakdown of the blood-brain barrier? direct injury of brain capillaries, inflammation, proliferation of new capillaries w/o tight junctions
What are the components of the blood-CSF barrier? tight junctions between choroid plexus epithelial cells, surface area only 0.02% of blood-brain barrier
What is the blood-CSF barrier permeable to? water, gases, lipid-soluble compounds, micronutrients, small peptides
What is the blood-CSF barrier impermeable to? proteins & small polar molecules
What are the components of the blood-nerve barrier? tight junctions between adjacent endothelial cells of endoneurial capillaries in the peripheral nervous system
What is the purpose of th blood-nerve barrier? prevent entry of large molecules into the endoneurial compartment of peripheral nerves
Created by: UTSW1