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Patho1 Bones Barry

What are the five functions of the skeleton? Support, protection, movement, storage, and blood cell production.
What are the three types of skeletal support? Bone, cartilage, and ligament.
What is bone? Rigid, strong bone is well suited for bearing weight and is the major supporting tissue of the body.
What is cartilage? Cartilage provides a firm, yet flexible support within certain structures, such as the nose, external ear, rib cartilages, and trachea.
What are ligaments? Ligaments are strong bands of fibrous connective tissue that attach to bones and hold them together.
Bone is hard and protects the organs it surrounds. What are some examples of bone acting as protection? The skull encloses and protects the brain, and the vertebrae surround the spinal cord. The rib cage protects the heart, lungs, and other organs of the thorax.
Skeletal muscles attach to bones by tendons, which are strong bands of connective tissue. How do they produce movement? Contraction of the skeletal muscles moves the bones, producing body movements.
Joints permit and control the movement between bones. Where are they formed? Where two or more bones come together.
What substance covers the ends of bones within some joints, allowing the bones to move freely? Smooth cartilage.
What do ligaments do? Allow some movement between bones but prevent excessive movement.
Some minerals are stored in the bones, and when the blood levels of these minerals decrease, they are released from the bone. What are the top two minerals stored in the bone? Calcium and phosphorus.
What is stored in the bones and can be released into the body as a source of energy? Fat(adipose tissue).
Marrow found in some bone cavities gives rise to blood cells and... Platelets.
Cancellous bone is found in between... Compact bone.
An osteon is also known as a... Haversian system.
What runs through the middle of a central(Haversian) canal? Blood vessels.
Perforating canals(in the bone) run perpendicular to osteons and are called? Volkmann's canals.
What in the bone make up the osteon by forming rings around a blood vessel? Concentric lamellae.
The bone contains three types of cells: Osteoblasts, osteocytes, and osteoclasts.
What are delicate bridges of bone that interlace marrow and vessels within a bone? Trabecula.
Why is there no skeletal protection around the abdominal organs? Because we store fat in the abdomen and it needs room to grow.
What allows us to move? Displacement of body segments after contraction of muscle.
What do bones store? Calcium and phosphates and fats – yellow fat.
What is hematopoiesis? The formation of blood in the bones.
Where is blood formed? In red bone marrow.
Where is red bone marrow found? Mostly in flat bones – sternum, hip, skull, long bones. In fetus, many bones are capable of hematopoesis.
Every organ has two components... Parenchyma, which is the functional part of the organ. Stroma, which is support.
What is the functional unit of bone? Osteon, or Haversian system.
What runs through an osteon? A central vascular structure, which is a combination of an artery and a vein with tissue around it.
What is an osteoblast? The bone-forming cells. Their primary function is to lay down new bone. Once this function is complete, osteoblasts become osteocytes.
What are osteocytes? These cells are osteoblasts that have become imprisoned within the mineralized bone matrix. They help maintain bone by synthesizing new bone matrix molecules.
What are osteoclasts? Osteoclasts function primarily to resorb (remove) bone during the process of growth and repair. They cause causes destruction of bone and extraction of Ca++ to increase the calcemia in the blood.
What is a blood vessel perforating perpendicularly between two osteons (haversian systems)? Volkmann's canal.
What is the connective tissue that surrounds the bone? Periosteum.
Is there a fluid layer between the periosteum and the bone? No.
What is a lamellae? One of the layers of bone around a Haversian canal.
What are concentric lamallae? Lamallae that encircle a Haversian canal(osteon).
What are intersitial lamallae? Lamallae that fill in the spaces between the circular Haversian canals(osteons).
What are canaliculi? Minute channels within compact bone.
An osteoblast is a cell that produces... Type I collagen.
What do osteoblasts do when stimulated by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D? Produce osteocalcin.
What stimulates osteoblasts to produce osteocalcin? 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D.
Osteoblasts are responsive to what hormone? Parathyroid hormone(PTH).
Where are osteoblasts active? Osteoblasts are active on the outer surface of bones, where they form a single layer of cells.
How do osteoblasts make new bone? They bring about the formation of new bone by their synthesis of osteoid.
What is osteoid? Non-mineralized bone matrix.
What is an osteocyte? A transformed osteoblast that is trapped or surrounded in osteoid as it hardens from minerals that enter during calcification.
The function of osteocytes is not fully known, but they do... Synthesize certain matrix molecules assisting bone calcification.
Bones break easily with either... Too much or too little Ca++.
Osteocytes obtain nutrients from... Capillaries in the canaliculi and help concentrate them in the matrix.
Osteocytes synthesize and replace needed elements of the matrix, thus... Helping to maintain mineral homeostasis with the help of the PTH and osteoblast cells.
How do osteocytes help to maintain mineral homeostasis with the help of the PTH and osteoblast cells? By synthesizing and replacing needed elements of the matrix.
True or false: Osteoclasts are the major resorptive cells of bone. True.
Define osteoclasts: They are large, multinucleated cells with a short life span which develop from the hematopoietic stem cell in the bone marrow stroma and adjacent vessels and from mononuclear phagocytic cells.
How many nucleuses do osteoclasts have? Multiple.
Describe the life span of osteoclasts. They have a short life span.
Where do osteoclasts come from? They develop from the hematopoietic stem cell in the bone marrow stroma and adjacent vessels and from mononuclear phagocytic cells.
Osteoclasts contain <blank> filled with <blank>. Lysosomes (digestive vacuoles) filled with hydrolytic enzymes.
What are lysosomes? Digestive vacuoles.
What are lysosomes inside osteoclasts filled with? Hydrolytic enzymes.
Fracture is rupture of bone. What happens first in the healing process? Break –> severe bleeding. Vessels inside of osteon break and form hematoma in area.
What happens as a result of a hematoma forming at a break in bone? This brings chondroblasts to create a pattern of the broken plate in cartilage. Then osteoblasts deposit minerals in area.
How long to complete remodeling of bone? At least 45 days.
Bones are constantly changing Ca++. How long to completely replace a bone? 5-9 years.
How many times does the skeleton completely turn over in a lifetime? At least 3 times.
What is the head of the bone? Epiphysis.
Where are epiphyseal plates? The point where the epiphysis joins the diaphysis.
How are epiphyseal plates sealed? There is a point after surge in sexual hormones when epiphyseal plates are sealed and there is no possibility for more growing. When seal is calcified you cannot create more bone and the longitudinal growth is impossible.
True or false: young people have more red bone marrow in their long bones than adults. True.
Yellow bone marrow contains fat. Where is it found? Everywhere.
What is the cavity that contains marrow(either red or yellow) called? Medullary cavity.
Periosteum has how many layers? What are they called? Two. Inner and outer.
What are the two ways bone is classified? Histalogically and by shape.
What are the two histalogical classifications of bone? Compact and cancellous.
What are the four shape classifications of bone? Long, flat, irregular, short.
What are examples of long bone? Femur, humerus.
What is an example of flat bone? Parietal bone from roof of skull.
What are examples of irregular bone? Vertebra, sphenoid bone from skull.
What is an example of short bone? Carpels from wrists.
What are the two divisions of skeleton? Axial and appendicular.
What makes up the axial skeleton? Skull, spinal column, and ribcage.
What makes up the appendicular skeleton? Appendicular skeleton includes pectoral girdle: clavicle, scapula, upper extremities. Pelvic girdle: coccyl bones, hips, lower extremities.
Created by: 1592042303
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