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Cardiac Surgery

Surgery 2

what is the treatment for AAA surgery--repair
name the 5 P's for symptoms of Acute Arterial Occlusion pain, pulselessness, pallor, poikilothermia, paresthesias/paralysis
what is the most effective treatment for stable claudication lifestyle modification, smoking cessation, regimented excercise, and medications (Pletal)
what is the leading cause of death in Western culture atherosclerosis
what is the result of narrowing of lumen in atherosclerotic disease distal ischemia, acute thrombosis, downstream embolization
name the 3 types of lessions associated with atherosclerotic disease fatty streaks, fibrous plaques, complex plaques
the most common location for atherosclerosis at a bifurcation
what are the secondary risk factors for atherosclerosis age, family history, male, obesity
what causes pain with PVD ischemia of muscle tissue
name the arteries responsible for claudication pain in the buttocks distal aorta/common iliac
name the arteries responsible for claudication pain in the thigh external iliac
name the arteries responsible for claudication pain in the calf superficial femoral
describe typical pain with claudication reproducible, exercise induced pain in foot, calf, or buttock
vascular physical exam assessment includes documented pulses at each level, evaluate each level for signs of ischemia and tissue loss
Is an arteriography always necessary for diagnosis of claudication? only needed if intervention is planned
velocity of blood in vessels is determined by use of __ duplex ultrasound
what is the normal value of ABI in the normal patient >1
what is the ABI in a patient with intermittent claudication .5-.7
what is the ABI in a patient with claudication type pain at rest <0.3
the ratio of the blood pressure in the lower legs to the blood pressure in the arms. Compared to the arm, lower blood pressure in the leg is a symptom of blocked arteries (peripheral vascular disease). Ankle Brachial Index (ABI)
what is the common ABI of DM patients >1 due to calcified non-compressible vessels
what is the best test for determination of atherosclerotic disease status arteriography
indications for surgical intervention in PVD lifestyle modifications, rest pain, or tissue loss
one important complication of lower extremity amputation MI
80% of claudication patients have __ claudication stable
essential test to obtain prior to referral of PVD patient NIVT
test of choice for carotid artery disease duplex scan (doppler US)
what is the gold standard for diagnosing lesions of aortic arch, carotid artery, vertebral artery, and intracranial artery four vessel arteriography
leading cause of death CEA cardiac complication
what are the indications for AAA repair >5cm, size increase >0.5cm/yr, symptomatic, rupture
most common post op complication of AAA MI
what is the etiology of acute arterial occlusion thrombosis or embolism
name 2 common sites of AAO lower extremity vessels and diseased vessels
list the three most common post-MI complications VSD, Acute mitral insufficiency, LV aneurysm
list the criteria for CABG left main disease >50%, three vessel coronary disease, failed medical management, failed angioplasty, decreased LV function, complicated disease, diabetes mellitus
what is the patency of the radial artery when used as a conduit for CABG 84% five years
which conduit is most commonly used in CABG greater saphenous
list the classic triad of symptoms associated with aortic stenosis angina, syncope, CHF
indications for aortic valve replacement dyspnea on exertion, decreased LV function, pressure gradient >50 mmHg by cath
best for diagnosing aortic dissection TEE
percentage of benign cardiac tumors 75%
diagnosis of cardiac tumor echo
diagnosis of pericarditis echo
interpretation of blood flow in a doppler ultrasound BART-blue away, red toward
ABI in normal patients >1
ABI in patients with intermittent claudication 0.5-0.7
ABI in patients with rest pain <0.3
treatment for lower extremity rest pain arteriography, bypass surgery
indications for surgical intervention in PVD tissue loss, rest pain, lifestyle limiting claudication
leading cause of postoperative mortality MI
risk of stroke in patients with carotid stenosis depends on degree of stenosis, and presence of symptoms
what seemingly related symptoms are not associated with carotid disease diplopia, syncope, paresthesias
which vessels are assoc w/ sx of diplopia, syncope, and paresthesias vertebrobasilar arteries
physical exam finding is consistent with carotid vascular disease carotid bruit
gold standard for defining anatomy of carotid artery disease doppler US
gold standard for defining anatomy of carotid lesions arteriography
cause of amaurosis fugax embolization of the retinal artery, resulting in a transient monocular blindness
treatment for a 75% symptomatic carotid stenosis carotid endarterectomy
at what size is AAA repair indicated >5cm in diameter
Created by: Abarnard