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test 4

anatomy and physiology test review

The Central nervous system consists of? Brain and spinal cord, encased in bone
What are the fuctions of the Central nervous system? To process, integrate,store, and respond to information from the PNS
The peripheral nervous system consists of? Nervous tissue outside the CNS such as nerves and sensory receptors
The functions of the peripheral nervous system are? Detects stimuli and sends/recieves information from the CNS
Astrocytes provide strucual support for what? Neurons and blood vessels
What other fuction do the astrocytes provide? They influence the blood brain barrier, isolate damaged tissue, and limit the spread of inflammation
Emydemal cells line what? They line the ventricles and the central canal of the spinal cord, some produce cerebrospinal fluid
Microglial cells do what? They phagocytize microorganisms, foreign substances, and necrotic tissue
Oligodendrocytes form what? They form myelin sheaths around the axons of several CNS neurons
Schwann cells do what? They form myelin sheaths around part of the axon of a PNS neuron
What are satilite cells functions? They support and nourish neuron cell bodies with ganglia
What are the two parts of the refractory period? Absolute refractory and relative refractory
Absolute refractory has? No response to stimulus
Relative refractory does what? An action potential may be produced
The lateral ventricles are located where? They join in the midline just inferior to the corpus collosum
The third ventricle is located where? In the center of the diencephalon between the two halfes of the thalumus
The fourth ventricle is located where? In the inferior part of the pons to the superior part of the medulla oblongata
A structure of the fourth venrticle is? The cerebral aqueduct
The fourth ventricle is also continued where? With the part of the spinal cord
Folia are what? Ridged lines that are part of the cerebellum
Rami are? Branches of the spinal nerves
Two structures of the rami are? Dorsal rami and Ventral rami
Plexuses are? A braid or intermingling of the nerves, in this instance in the ventral rami
What are some of the major plexuses? Cervical, brachial, and lumbar
What are the other major plexuses? Sacral and coccygeal
The cervical major plexus does what? Controlls neck muscles and skin
The brachial major plexus does what? Controls upper limb
The lumbar major plexus does what? Muscles of the lower back, hip, and lower limb
The sacral major plexus does what? Normally associated with the lumbar plexus
The coccygeal major plexus does what? Muscles of the pelvic floor and skin over the coccygeal region
Endocrine gland is? A ductless gland that secretes chemical signals into the circulatory system
A fuction of the endocrine system is? Metabolism and tissue maturation
Another fuction of the endocrine system is ? Ion regulation
Another function of the endocrine system is? Water balance
Fuction of the endocrine system is? Immune system
Endocrine system function is? Heart rate and blood pressure
Endocrine system fuction is? Glucose and other nutrients
Endocrine system function is? Reproductive functions
The last function of the endocrine system is? Uterine contractions and milk release
Water soluble hormones do what? They circulate for only seconds to minutes before they are broke down
Lipid soluble hormones do what? They commonly circulate with the binding hormones
The pancreas is what kind of gland? An endocrine and exocrine gland
Insulin does what? It absorbs blood glucose for later use
Glucagon does what? It breaks down fat to increase blood glucose
Common glands for the endocrine system is? Pituitary gland and hypothalumus
Another gland for endocrine system? Thyroid gland and parathyroid gland
Another gland involved in the endocrine system is? Adreneal glands and pancreas
Name some other glands involved with the endocrine system? Testies, ovaries, and pineal gland
The PNS has what two divisions? The sensory and motor division
Motor division has what 2 divisions? Autonomic and somatic
Autonomic has 3 divisions what are they? Parsympathetic,sympathetic, and enteric
Parasympathetic does what? Is more for resting
Sympathetic does what? Is more for activity
Enteric does what? Controls digestive system
Myelinated axons conduct what? Action potentials rapidly
Unmyelinated axons conduct what slowly? Action potentials
Unmyelinated axons are? Produced immediately to adjacent action potentials
Myelinated axons produce what? Action Potentials at the nodes of ranvier
The Na+-K+ pump moves ions by? Active transport, K+ moved in and Na+ moved out
The negative charge is higher where? Inside the cell
Negatively charged proteins are synthesized where? Inside the cell and cannot diffuse out
The permability of the plasma membrane is determined by? Leak channels and gated ion channels
More numerous K+ leak channels than Na+ leak channels so? The cell is more permeable to K+ at rest
A charge difference across the membrane when the cell is not stimulated causes what? The inside to be more negatively charged while the outside is positively charged
Mainly due to the tendency of K+ ions to diffuse out of the cell, is opposed by? The negative charge that it develops
Depolarization is a decrease in the resting membrane potential, the cell becomes more positive due to? A decrease in the K+ concentration gradient, causing a decrease in the membrane permeability of K+
Decrease in the membrane permeability of K+ also causes? An increase of Na+ and Ca+ permeability, or a decrease in Ca+ outside the cell
Hyperpolarization is an increase of the resting membrane potential as a result from? An increase in the K+ concentration gradient, an increase in the membrane permeability of K+
What else does hyperpolarization cause? Increase in Cl- permeability, decrease of Na+ permeability, or an increase in Ca+ outside the cell
Cerebrospinal fluid fills the ventricles and what else? The subarachnoid space and the central canal of the spinal cord
Where is cerebrospinal fluid produced? In the choroid plexus within the ventricles by ependymal cells
What does cerebrospinal fluid provide? Protecting fluid cushion and provide some nutrients to the CNS tissues
Cranial nerve 1 is? It is called Olfactory and its fuction is the special sense of smell
Cranial nerve 2 is? It is called Optic and its function is the special sense of vision
Cranial nerve 3 is? It is called Ocolomotor and its fuction is motor to the eye muscles
Cranial nerve 4 is? It is called Trochlear and its fuction is that it is the motor to one eye muscle
Cranial nerve 5 is? It is called Trigeminal and the fuction is that it is the motor to the muscles of mastication
Cranial nerve 6 is? It is called Abducent and its fuction is it is the motor to one eye muscle
Cranial nerve 7 is? It is called Facial and its fuction is it is the motor to the muscles of facial expression
Cranial nerve 8 is? It is called Vestibulocochlear and its fuction is the special sense of hearing and balance
Cranial nerve 9 is? It is called Glossopharyngeal and the function is the sense of taste
Cranial nerve 10 is? It is called Vagus and its function is it makes voice production
Cranial nerve 11 is? It is called Accessory and its function is the motor to the sternocleidomastoid and trapezius muscle
Cranial nerve 12 is? It is called Hypoglossal and it function is the motor to the tongue muscles
A convolution is? One of the sinous folds or ridges of the surface of the brain
Dermatome is? Area of skin supplied by a spinal nerve
The Brochas ares is located where? Inferior part of frontal lobe
The Brochas area does what? It is the motor speech area which initiates the complex series of movements necessary for speech
Wernickes area is located where? It is located in the portion of parietal lobe
Wernickes area has what fuction? It is the sensory speech area, It is necessary for understanding and formulating coherent speech
The pyramid does what? It is the descending tracts involved in muscle control, decussate or the decussation of the pyramids
The cerebellar peduncles do what? Attached to the brainstem by three groups of tracts
The parts of the cerebellum are? The Vermis,Flocculonodular, Lateral hemispheres
The thalamus is what? The largest part of the diencephalon
What other facts about the thalumus are there? It is a collection of nuclei
All senses relay to the ____ to the cerebellum, except smell Thalumus
What does the thalumus control? Skeletal muscles, limbic system, and emotions
Created by: meganmeyer20



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