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alimentation process of providing nutrition for body
What are nutrients used for? growth, generation of energy and elimination of wastes
Roles of Digestive System ingestion, digestion, absorption, elimination
Ingestion 1: oral taking of substances into body
Digestion 2: mechanical and chemical conversion of food into substance that can by absorbed by cells
Absorption 3: digested food molecules pass through lining of small intestine into blood or lymph capillaries
Elimination 4: removal of undigested food particles, defecation
Classes of nutrients carbs, proteins, lipids
Carbohydrates basic source of energy for human cells, sugars and starches
Enzymes chemical breakdown of nutrients into simpler substances
Lactsase breaks down lactose
Glucsoe digestion of sugars, major source of energy for body
Amlyase breaks down starch
Protease breaks down proteins
Lipase breaks down lipids
Lipids energy reserve
-ation action or process
bil/i, chol/e bile
cirrh/o yellow-orange
de- down, reversing
gylcos/o sugar
-orexia appetite
-pepsia digestion
vag/o vagus nerve
viscer/o viscera
What canals is digestive system divided into? alimentary and several organs
digestive tract begins at mouth ends at anus
gastrointestinal stomach and intestines
UGI mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach
LGI small and large intestines
cheil/o lips
dent/i, dent/o, odont/o teeth
gingiv/o gums
gloss/o, lingu/o tongue
esophag/o esophagus
gastr/o stomach
intestin/o, enter/o intestines
duoden/o duodenum
jejun/o jejunum
ile/o ileum
col/o, colon/o colon, large intestine
append/o, appendic/o appendix
cec/o cecum
sigmoid/o sigmoid colon
proct/o anus
rect/o rectum
an/o anus
duodenum begins at end of stomach
ileum joins with cecum
large intestine cecum, colon, rectum, and canal
Colon ascending, transverse, descending, sigmoid
Accessory organs produces substances needed for proper digestion and absorption of nutrients : liver, gallbladder, pancreas, salivary glands
Liver largest organ, produces bile
bile breaks downs fats before absorption by small intestine, stored in gallbladder
bile duct main duct that conveys bile to duodenum
choledochal pertaining to common bile duct
sialography demonstrate the presence of calculi in ducts, inject radiopaque into ducts
proctoscopy examination of rectum
Diabetes mellitus (DM) caused by resistance to insulin or lack of insulin secretion by insulin secreting cells of pancreas
hyperglycemia increased glucose level in blood, may result in diabetes
Polyphagia excessive hunger, uncontrolled eating
polydipsia excessive thirst
polyuria excessive urination
Type 1 diabetes genetically determine, results in absolute insulin deficiency
Type 2 diabetes genetics, environmental factors, aging and obesity, insulin resistance
gestational diabetes mellitus during pregnancy, carbohydrate intolerance, deficiency of insulin, disappears after delivery but can return later
hypoglycemia too much insulin
carcinoma can occur in almost any organ in gastrointestinal system
hyperlipemia increased amount of fat or lipids in blood
obesity abnormal increase in proportion of fat cells, 20% above desirable body weight for person's age, sex, heigh and body type
hyperemesis excessive vomiting
diarrhea excessive discharge
emaciation excessive leanness cause by disease or lack of nutrition
anorexia loss of appetite for food
anorexia nervosa disorder characterized by prolonged refusal to eat resulting in emaciation
bulimia episodes of binge eating with self-induced vomiting
malnutrition caused by bulimia, anorexia nervosa, malabsorption, improper absorption of nutrients into bloodstream from intestines
malabsorption syndrome complex of symptoms that include anorexia, weight loss, flatulence, muscle cramps, bone pain
canker sores ulcers in mouth and lips
cheilitis inflammation of lips
gingivitis inflammation of gum
glossitis inflammation of tongue, painful sometimes covered with ulcers, difficult swallowing
stomatitis inflammation of mouth
dysphagia inability to swallow or difficulty in swallowing
esophageal varices complex of enlarges and swollen veins at lower end of esophagus that are susceptible to hemorrhage
esophagitis inflammation of esophagus
gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) backflow of stomach contents into esophagus, burning pain in esophagus treatments: elevation of head of the bed, avoidance of acid-stimulation goods, use of antacids
gastritis inflammation of stomach
gastrocele herniation of stomach, hiatus, hiatal hernia
hiatus/hiatal hernia protrusion of structure through opening in diaphragm that allows passage of esophagus
gastroenterities inflammation of stomach and intestinal tract
hyperacidity excessive amount of acid in stomach, may lead to ulceration of stomach & is treated with antacids or antiulcer medications
ulcer lesion of mucous membrane with shedding of dead tissue
upper gastrointestinal bleeding bleeding of upper digestive system, evidence bloody vomit
appendicitis inflammation of vermiform appedix
colitis inflammation of colon
diverticulitis inflammation of diverticulum in intestinal tract, especially in colon, causing stagnation or lack of movement, of feces and pain
diverticulum small sac or pouch in wall of organ
diverticulosis presence of diverticula without inflammation, affects older than 50 years
duodenal ulcer ulcer of duodenum, bleeding may be present, perforation leading to peritonitis
duodenitis inflammation of duodenum
enterostasis stoppage or delay in passage of food through intestine
hemorrhoids masses of veins in anal canal that are unnaturally distended and lies just inside or outside rectum, accompanied by pain, itching and bleeding
irritable bowel syndroms (IBS) increased motility of small and large intestines of unknown origins, functional bowel syndrome, mucous colitis, spastic colon
lower gastrointestinal bleeding bleeding of lower digestive structures
cholecystitis inflammation of gallbladder
cholelithiasis formation or presence of gallstones in gallbladder or common bile duct
cholestasis stoppage of bile excretion
cirrhosis chronic liver disease characterized by marked degeneration of liver cells
hepatitis inflammation of liver
hepatomegaly enlargement of liver
diabetes general term for disease characterized by excessive urination
pancreatitis inflammation of pancreas
enteral nutrition introducing nutrients directly into gastrointestinal tract when patient cannot chew ingest or swallow food
enteral feeding nasogastric, nasoduodenal, nasojejunal
anorexiant appetite-suppressing drug
antidiarrheals treat diarrhea
antiemetics relieve or prevent vomiting
emetics cause vomiting
laxatives evacuation of bowel
purgatives/cathartics strong medication used to promote full evacuation of bowel, in preparation of diagnostic studies or surgery of digestive tract
diabetes treatments diet, exercise, weight control, glucose-lowering agents, insulin
gallstone treatment laser lithotripsy, shock wave lithotripsy (no incision) : disintegrate the stone, particles pass through biliary ducts and are eliminated, may resort to cholecystectomy
laparoscopic cholecystectomy gallbladder is excised with laser and removed through a small incision in abdominal wall
appendectomy removal of vermiform appendix, removed when infected to prevent peritonitis
cholecystectomy surgical removal of gallbladder, exploration of common bile duct often performed during cholecystectomy, biliary vessel injected with contrast medium and x-ray images taken to determine whether stones are present
colostomy creation of artificial anus on abdominal wall by incising colon and drawing it out the the surface, when feces can't pass through
gastrectomy surgical removal or all or part of stomach
gastroduodenostomy surgical removal of stomach and duodenum
anastomosis joining of 2 organs, vessels, ducts that are normally separate
gastrostomy surgical creation of new opening into stomach through abdominal wall, allows insertion of synthetic feeding tube, performed when patient cant eat normally
lithotiptor sloughs off gallstones til fragmented and can pass through biliary ducts
hemorrhoidectomy removal of hemmorrhoids
ileostomy creation of surgical passage through abdominal wall into ileum, fecal material from ileum drains through opening called stoma into bag
laparoscopy examination on abdominal cavity with laparoscope through one or more small incision in abdominal wall; done for inspection of abdominal organs and laparoscopic surgeries
liver biopsy removal of tissue from liver for pathologic examination
percutaneous biopsy removal of liver tissue by using needle to puncture skin overlying the liver, closed biopsy
pancreatolithectomy excision of a pancreatic stone
vagotomy resection of portions of vagus nerve near stomach, decreases amount of gastric juices by severing nerve that controls their release
Created by: Hayzelley



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