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Nervous System the extensive intricate network of structures that activates, coordinates, and controls all of the functions of the body
Receives internal and external stimuli through the sensory organs
Transmits messages to and from the brain
Interprets the transmitted messages, stores any needed information, and coordinates any required responses
Responds to internal and external stimuli through the motor organs
Stimulus a change in an organisms external environment or internal conditions that cause a response in one or more of the organisms systems
Sensory organ an organ with the primary purpose of monitoring conditions in the environment and within the body in order to provide the brain with information that may require a response
Motor organ an organ with the primary function of moving materials within the body or parts of the body itself
CNS the part of the nervous system that consists of the brain and spinal cord, to which sensory impulses are transmitted and from which motor impulses pass out; the part of the NS that coordinates the activity of the entire NS
PNS the part of the NS that is outside the CNS and consists of 12 pairs of cranial nerves and 31 pairs of spinal nerves that link the various parts of the body to the CNS
Brain the portion of the central nervous system contained within the cranium and containing specialized cells that coordinate and regulate the functions of the CNS
Spinal cord the cord of nerve tissue that extends from the brain lengthwise along the back in the spinal cord and gives off pairs of spinal nerves, carries impulses to and from the brain, and serves as a center for initiating and coordinating reflex acts
Spinal Canal the row of aligned holes in the vertebrae through which the spinal cord passes
Somatic nervous system the part of the PNS that connects the CNS to the skin and the skeletal muscles via the cranial and spinal nerves and initiates voluntary responses
Autonomic NS the part of the PNS that connects the CNS to the visceral organs via the cranial and spinal nerves and initiates involuntary responses
Somatic of, relating to, or affecting the body
Autonomic acting or occurring involuntarily
Sympathetic NS the part of the ANS that prepares the body to deal with emergencies through the expenditures of energy
Parasympathetic NS the part of the ANS that restores homeostatic balance and conserves energy
Nerve Tissue tissue consisting of one or more bundles of impulse carrying fibers that connect the brain and the spinal cord and the rest of the body
Neurons the basic nerve tissue cells that are capable of transmitting nerve impulses
Neuralgia the basic nerve tissue cells that support neurons and play a role when there is injury or infection in the nervous system
Cell Body acts as a sending and receiving center, performs metabolic and reproductive functions for the cell, and stores energy
Dendrite carries impulses to the cell body
Axon carries impulses from the cell body
Nerve Fiber an elongated process of a neuron usually the axon concerned primarily with the conduction of impulses
White Matter neural tissue that consists largely of myelinated nerve fiber and has a whitish color
Myelin A soft white somewhat fatty material that forms a thick sheath about the core of a myelinated nerve fiber
Myelinated having myelin sheath
Axis Cylinder the central core of a nerve fiber that consists of a jelly like material
Myelin sheath the segmented, fatty covering of a nerve fiber that wraps the axons of many nerves and acts as an electrical insulator that reduces the possibility of an impulse stimulating adjacent nerves
Neurilemma the layer of cells composed of one or more Schwann cells that enclose the myelin sheath; the cell nucleus is a flattened oval that lies in a small depression in the myelin
Sensory Neurons are also called afferent, they receive messages from all parts of the body and transmit them to CNS, and are controlled by the thalamus
Thalamus one of a pair of large oval organs in the brain
Interneurons are also called central neurons or interneural neurons or connecting neurons; conduct messages or impulses from sensory to motor neurons; are found only in the CNS
Motor Neurons also called efferent neurons; transmit messages from the CNS to all parts of the body; are located in the muscles and glands; are controlled by the frontal lobe of the brain
When the neuron recieves a signal, it sends an impulse to the next neuron across the synapse between an axon and a dendrite
Two or more neurons arranged in a chain function to conduct impulses from one place to another
Impulses pass only in one direction from a receptor dendrite to the cell body to the axon to a dendrite and so on
When a nerve impulse is blocked, the blocking usually takes place at a synapse
Synapse the space between the axon and the dendrites of adjoining neurons through which nerve impulses travel
A reflex is an involuntary response to a stimulus, such as blinking the eyes when something approaches them, salivating at the sight of appetizing food, and jerking of the knee when a certain spot is tapped
Many reflexes do not involve action on part of the brain; instead, the affector/effector circuit is completed by a loop in the spinal cord called a reflex arc
A reflex arc consists of an affector that provides a signal through a sensory neuron into a spinal nerve and into the spinal cord
The impulse passes through an interneuron in the gray matter of the spinal cord to a motor neuron that connects to an effector
Gray matter nerve tissue that consists of motor neurons and interneurons
The part of the nerve fiber that is separated by injury or disease from the cell body disintegrates
The neurilemma starts to regenerate at the site of the injury; if the cut ends of the nurilemma are not separated by too much distance, the sections grow back together to form a neurilemmar tube
The axon stump that is attached to the cell body grows into the nurilemmar tube and the regeneration is complete
Oligodendrocytes form the insulating sheath of myelin on neurons in the central nervous system
Microglia move so that they can locate and destroy damaged tissue and invading cells and organisms
Astrocytes Prevent harmful chemicals from entering the brain from contaminated blood
Ependyma Line the fluid filled cavities in the brain and help to circulate cerebrospinal fluid
Cerebralspinal Fluid the tissue fluid that circulates aroung the brain and spinal cord
Structures of the spinal canal spinal cord; cerebrospinal fluid; meningies; adipose tissue; blood vessels
Meninx any one of the three membranes that envelop the brain and the spinal cord
The spinal cord is a small cord about 18 inches long in an adult
The SC lies within the Spinal canal and is surrounded by the vertebrae
The SC acts as the conduction pathway for impulses between the peripheral nerves to an from the brain
In cross section the SC exhibits an H shaped area of gray matter surrounded by an outer region of white matter
Spinal Nerves emerge from the SC as two short roots the dorsal for the sensory nerves and the ventral for the motor nerves
the SC extends from the medulla of the brain to the 1st lumbar vertebra or top of the 2nd lumbar vertebra, where it begins to taper into a horsetail of fibers that finally ends in the coccygeal area
Coccygeal of or relating to the coccyx, the 4 fused vertebrae that form the terminus of the spinal column
Cerebrospinal fluid circulates around the brain and spinal cord to maintain an even pressure and act as a cushion or shock absorber
Components of Cerebrospinal Fluid water; glucose; sodium chloride; protein; some waste products, such as urea
Dura mater the hard, outermost protective layer of the meninges that is composed of connective tissues
Subdural Space the cavity beneath the dura mater that is filled with serous fluid
Arachnoid the middle layer of the meninges that resembles a spiders web
Subarachnoid space the cavity below the arachnoid that is filled with cerebralspinal Fluid and acts as a shock absorber for the spinal cord and the brain
Pia mater the soft, innermost layer of the meninges that contain blood vessels that nourish that tissue layers and carry away waste products
Forebrain the prosencephalon the anterior division of the brain
Midbrain the mesencephalon the middle division of the brain
Hindbrain the rhombencephalon the posterior division of the brain
Major structures of the forebrain cerebrum, and Diencephalon
Cerebrum the telencephalon; the anterior portion of the brain that is considered to be the seat of conscious mental processes
Diensephalon the posterior subdivision of the forebrain that includes the thalamus serves as a relay center, functions in the integration of sensory info, hypothalamus which controls body temp, water balance, sleep, appetite, some emotions, and both divisions of ANS
Major structures of the Hindbrain Cerebellum, medulla oblongata, and pons
Cerebellum the posterior part of the hindbrain that serves to maintain body, balance, equilibrium, coordination, and muscle tone
Medulla Oblongata the portion of the hindbrain that is continuous posteriorly with the spinal cord and serves to control vital functions such as breathing, heart rate, blood pressure, swallowing, and coughing
Pons the portion of the hindbrain that is at the anterior end of the medulla oblongata and serves to relay impulses between the cerebrum and the cerebellum and the cerebrum and the medulla oblongata
Hemisphere one half of a sphere; the lateral half of the cerebrum or cerebellum
Sulcus a shallow groove a depression or a furrow on the surface of an organ
Fissure a cleft or a groove on the surface of an organ, marking division of the organ into parts
Lobe a portion of any organ that is demarcated by sulci
fissures, or connective tissue
Ventricle a small cavity such as the cavities filled with cerebrospinal fluid in the brain
Frontal Lobe the anterior division of each cerebral hemisphere that controls voluntary muscles and judgement
Parietal Lobe the middle division of each cerebral hemisphere that controls sensory functions such as pain, touch, and temperature interruption
Occipital Lobe the posterior lobe of each cerebral hemisphere that controls vision
Temporal Lobe a large lobe of each cerebral hemisphere that is situated in front of the occipital lobe and controls hearing, smell, and taste
Parietal of relating to or forming the upper posterior wall of the head
Occipital of relating to or located within or near the occiput or occipital bone
Temporal of or relating to the temples or the sides of the skull behind the orbits
Central lobe one of the lobes consisting each of the cerebral hemispheres and lying hidden in the depths of the lateral sulcus
Longitudinal fissure the fissure that divides the cerebrum into two hemispheres
Central fissures the fissure that divides the frontal lobe laterally from the parietal lobe
Lateral Fissures the fissure that separates the temporal lobe from the parietal lobe
there are 4 ventricles in the brain; 2 lateral ventricles, and the 3rd and 4th
the ventricles are filled with cerebrospinal fluid
the ventricles are continuous with the central canal of the spinal cord
the lateral ventricles are located inside the cerebral hemispheres
each lateral ventricle possesses a posterior, anterior, and inferior horn
the posterior horn of a lateral ventricle extends into the occipital lobe
the anterior horn of a lateral ventricle extends into the frontal lobe
the inferior horn of a lateral ventricle extends into the temporal lobe
each lateral ventricle communicates with the third ventricle by way of the interventricle foramen
the thrid ventricle is located in the diencephalon with the thalamus and hypothalamus
the cerebral aqueduct connects the third ventricle with the fourth ventricle
the fourth ventricle lies between the cerebellum and the pons and the medulla
the fourth ventricle communicates with the subarachnoid space of the spinal canal through one medial foramen and two lateral foramina
inside each ventricle are tiny masses of specialized capillaries called choroid plexuses that secrete cerebrospinal fluid
foramen an opening in a membranous structure
aqueduct a canal or passage in a part of organ
Olfactory nerve pair I; support the sense of smell
Optic nerve pair II; support the sense of sight
Oculomotor nerve pair III; control four muscles of the eye
trochlear nerve pair IV; control some of the eye muscles
Trigeminal nerve pair V; control the muscles of the cornea and conjunctiva, the upper portion of the face, the ear, the lower lip, the teeth, the gums, and the muscles for chewing
Abducens nerve pair VI; control the lateral eye movement
Facial nerve pair VII; supply the face muscles, the middle ear, and the taste sensors
Auditory nerve pair VIII; support the sense of hearing and balance
Glossopharyngeal nerve pair IX; support the sense of taste and control swallowing
Vagus nerve pair X; control swallowing, hunger, speech, breathing, heary rate, peristalsis, and glands in the stomach and pancreas
Spinal Accessory Nerve pair XI; control the muscles of the neck and upper back
Hypoglossal nerve pair XII; control the tongue muscles
Cornea the transparent part of the coat of the eyeball that covers the iris and pupil and admits light to the interior
Conjunctiva the mucous membrane that lines the inner surface of the eyelids and continues over the forepart of the eyeball
Peristalsis successive waves of involuntary contractions that pass along the walls of a hollow muscular structure, such as the esophagus or the intestine, and force the contents outward
Pancreas a large gland that secretes digestive enzymes and the hormones insulin and glucagon
Plexus a network of nerves from several segments of the spinal cord that combine to form nerves to specific parts of the body
Cervical nerves the eight pairs of spinal nerves that arise from the neck area of the spinal cord
thoracic nerves the 12 pairs of spinal nerves on each side of the thorax, including 11 intercostal nerves and one subcostal nerve
Lumbar nerves the 5 pairs of nerves that arise in the lumbar region
Sacral nerves the 5 pairs of spinal nerves that arise from the sacral region of the spinal cord
Coccygeal nerve the single pair of spinal nerves that arises near the coccygeal region of the spinal cord
major nerves that arise from the cervical plexus c 1 through c 4; phrenic
Phrenic of or relating to the diaphram
Major nerves that arise from the brachial plexus c 5 through c 8; t 1; axillary nerve; radial nerve; median nerve; ulnar nerve
Axillary of or pertaining to the axilla, the cavity beneath the junction of the forelimb and the body
radial pertaining to the radius, one of the bones of the forearm, lying parallel to the ulna
Median nerve the nerve that extends along the radial portions of the forearm and the hand and supplies various muscles and the skin of these parts
Ulnar nerve the nerve that supplies the muscles on the ulnar side of the forearm and hand
Major nerves that arise from the lumbar plexus L 1 through L 4; femoral nerve
Femoral of or pertaining to the femur or thigh
major nerves that arise from the sacral plexus l 4 and l 5; s 1 through s 4; sciatic nerve
Sciatic near the ischium, the hipbone
major nerves that arise from the coccygeal plexus s 4 and s 5; coccygeal nerve
Multiple sclerosis a progressive nerve dissorder that leads to degeneration of the myelin sheaths of CNS nerve cells, is marked by patches of hardened tissue in the brain or the spinal cord, and is associated with partial or complete paralysis and jerking muscle tremor
Sclerosis any pathological hardening of tissue
Progressive becoming more involved
degenerative worsening
Neuroma the general term for any tumor arising from a nerve and usually consisting of nerve fiber
Glioma a generally benign tumor arising from neuralgia
Astrocytoma a tumor that occurs in astrocytes
Ependymoma a tumor that arises in the lining of a ventricle and may extend to the spinal cord
Acoustic Neuroma a tumor that developes from the eighth cranial nerve and grows within the auditory canal
multiple neurofibromatosis an inherited disease that produces numerous benign tumors in the Schwann cells of the meninges usually caused by a bacerial infection
meningiits an inflammation of the meninges usually caused by a bacterial infection
Hydrocephalus an increase in the amount of cerebrospinal fluid in the cranial cavity, resulting in an enlargement of the skull and especially the forehead and atrophy of the brain
Cerebrovascular accident a lesion in the brain; a stroke
Thrombus a blood clot that obstructs a blood vessel and can thereby prevent the flow of blood to a region of the body
Aneurism A weak spot in a blood vessel; generally an artery; that allows a bubble or sac to form in the wall of the vessel
Cerbral palsy a disability that results from injury before or during birth that leads to poor muscle coordination and speech disturbances
Alzheimer's disease A progressive disease of the central nervous system that results in a loss of memory and reduced intellectual ability and speech and motor control
Huntington's disease an inherited disease that leads to involuntary, purposeless movements
Parkinson's Disease a degenerative condition in neurons that leads to overstimulation of skeletal muscles, marked by tremor and weakness of resting muscles and by a shuffling gait
Epilepsy a condition of recurring of chronic seizures
Herpes Zoster a viral infection of the sensory fibers in the skin, causing a painful eruption of red patches
Trigeminal neuralgia a condition of recurring pain as a result of disease or injury int the trigeminal (C5) nerve
Created by: llc1980