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Test 2 chapter 51

Chapter 51

The ______, ______ ______, and the _______ secrete hormones that regulate teh processes of ovulation, spermatogenesis, fertilization, and the formation and function of secondary sex characteristics hypothalamus, pituitary gland, gonads
The hypothalamus secretes ______, which stimulates the pituitary gland to secrete ______ and ________ GnRH, FSH, LH
The gonadal hormones are ________, _______, and _______. estrogen, progesterone, testosterone
In women, FSH stimulates the growth and maturity of the ovarian follicles necessary for _______. Ovulation
The mature follicle produces _______, which suppresses the release of ___. estrogen, FSH
In men, FSH stimulates the seminiferous tubules to produce ______. sperm
__ causes follicles to complete maturation and undergo ovulation, as well as the development of a ________ follicle. LH, ruptured
The ruptured follicle developes into a ______ ______ corpus luteum
The corpus luteum secretes _________. progesterone
Progesterone maintains the rich vascular state of the _____ in preparation for fertilization and implantation. uterus
In men, LH is responsible for the production of testosterone by the _______ cells of the testes, and is essential for the full maturation of _____. interstitial, sperm
_______ and ______ are produced by the ovaries. Estrogen and progesterone
Estrogen is essential to the development and maintenance of secondary sex characteristics, the _________ phase of the menstrual cycle immediately after menstruation, and the ______ changes essential to pregnancy. proliferative, uterine
Progesterone plays a role in the ________ phase of the menstrual cycle and is associated with bodily changes that occur during _______. secretory, pregnancy
Name the three major functions of testosterone. 1) the production and transportation of sperm, 2) deposition of sperm in the female reproductive tract, and 3) secretion of hormones
Circulating levels of gonadal hormones are controlled primarily by a _______ ______ process. negative feedback
Receptors in the ______ and _______ are sensitive to high circulating blood levels of levels of androgens. hypothalamus and pituitary
If testosterone levels are low in men, the ___________ secretes _____. hypothalamus, GnRH
Secretion of GnRH stimulates the _______ ______ to secrete greater levels of _____ and ______. anterior pituitary, GnRH, ICSH
In men, higher levels of GnRH and ICSH increase the production of __________. testosterone
With regards to the negative feedback cycle in men, the high levels of testosterone stimulates a decrease in teh production of ____, and then ____ and ____. GnRH, FSH, and ICSH
In women, circulatory levels of testosterone are controlled through a ____ and _____ feedback system. positive and negative
The first episode of menstrual bleeding, indicating that a female has reached puberty is called __________. menarche
Normal onset of menarche is ____ to ____ years of age. 12-13
Menarche is marked by a decrease in the sensitivity of hypothalmic-pituitary axis, which increases ___ and __. FSH, LH
During menarche, the increase of FSH and LH results in an increase of _______. estrogen
Changes during menarche are related to the elevated levels of ________ and _______ secreted by the _______. estrogen and progesterone; ovaries
Physical changes during menarche include the development of 1), 2), 3). 1) breast buds 2) pubic hair 3) axillary hair
The menstrual cycle is a monthly process mediated by the hormonal activity of the _________, _________, and _______. hypothalamus, pituitary, ovaries
The endometrial cycle is divided into what three phases. proliferative (follicular) secretory (luteal) menstrual (ischemic)
During menstruation, estrogen and progesterone levels are _____, and FSH levels ______. low; increase
During the follicular phase, a single follicle matures fully under teh stimulation of ____. FSH
The mature follicle stimulates ________ production, causing a negative feedback with resulting decreased FSH. estrogen
Complete follicular maturation and ovulation can only be complete in the presence of __. LH
When estrogen levels peak, there is a surge of LH, which triggers _______ a day or two later. ovulation
After ovulation, __ promotes the development of the ______ _______. LH, corpus luteum
The fully developed corpus luteum continues to secrete _____ and initiates ______ secretion. estrogen; progesterone
High levels of estrogen and progesterone continue to be secreted in the presence of __________, and decrease in the absence of it. fertilization
During the follicular phase, as larger amounts of estrogen are produced, there is an increase in cellular growth, length of blood vessels, and glandular tissues in the ________ ______. endometrial lining
The luteal, or ________ phase, begins with ________ and increased levels of progesterone. secretory, ovulation
In the secretory phase, blood vessels begin to ____ and glandular tissues mature and secrete a glycogen rich substance and the glandular duct ________. coil, dilates.
What is menapause? The physiologic cessation of menses associated with declining ovarian functions.
What are the Masters & Johnsons phases of sexual response? Excitement, Plateau, Orgasm, and Resolution
Age related changes in men are 1) increased stimulation needed for ________, 2) force of ejaculation _______, 3) decreased ability to attain ________, 4) decreased ____ and _____ of penis at full erection, 5) decreased interest in ___. 1) erection, 2) ejaculation, 3) erection, 4) size and rigidity, 5) sex.
Age related changes in women are: 1) decreased vaginal ______, 2) decreased sensitivity with shrinking _____ and _____ exposed, 3)difficulty in maintaining _______, 4) difficulty achieving ______, and 5) decreased interest in ___. 1) secretions, 2)labia; clitoris, 3) arousal, 4) orgasm, 5) sex
What is the nurses role in promoting normalcy of sexual activity in older patients? Nurses need to provide accurate and unbiased info about sexuality and age, emphasize the normalcy of sexual activity in adults, and counsel in necessary.
With regard to sexuality in the aging population, nurses need to elicit info relating to the ________ system b/c they are often considered personal and private. reproductive
When asking questions about the reproductive system, the nurse needs to begin by obtaining the ______ sensitive information first, then move to asking about sexual ______ and ___. least; practices and STDs
What is the subjective data that should be obtained from both sexes reproductive systems? 1) Past health history, 2)Medications, 3) Functional health patterns
Information about past health history should include info about ______ and surgeries, infections involving ______ system, a woman's ______ history, man's history of ______, ________ during 1st trimester, and diabetes in men b/c of ED and ______ ejac. Illnesses, reproductive,gynecologic, mumps, rubella, retrograde
Medication history should cover a list of ___ meds and _____ products, dosing, drug use history of ________ and _____ b/c they may contraindicate the use of contraceptives. meds and herbal supplements, cholecystitis and hepatitis
Info about pt's functional health patterns includes health _______ (fam hist), ____-____ patterns, ____ pattern, activity-exercise pattern, sleep-rest pattern, cognitive, ____ perception,_____ relationship, ____-_____ pattern, stress, and ____ belief perception, nutritional-metabolic, self, role, sexuality-reproductive, value
The spontaneous flow of milk is called galactorrhea
Purulent relating to puss.
Urine studies for the reproductive system are 1, 2, 3 1) hCG, 2) testosterone, 3) FSH assay
The hCG assay is used to detect _____ or ________ & __________. Nurse should obtain _____ history to rule in/out _____ pregnancy, hydatidiform mole & chorioepithelioma, menstrual, pregnancy
Testosterone studies in the urine are used to detect _____ or _____. Nurse should instruct pt to obtain ____ hour sample and keep refrigerated tumors or abnormalities, 24,
FSH assay indicates ______ failure because of pituitary dysfunction. gonadal
The prolactin assay is used to detect _____ dysfunction that causes ________. It is the nurses responsibility to observe site for venipuncture or ________ formation. pituitary; amenorrhea
The blood study PSA is used to detect ______ _____, as well as monitoring response to therapy. A normal finding is <_ng/ml prostate cancer, 4
The serum hCG assay is used to ascertain whether elevated _______ are due to testicular, adrenal, ovarian dysfunction or _____ tumors androgens; pituitary.
serum testosterone can also assess male ______ and tumors of the testicle or ovary. Range in males is __-___ng/dl infertility; 300-1200
What drugs or conditions can interfere with serum hCG studies? corticosteroids, barbituates, hypo or hyperthyroidism
Serum progesterone study is used to detect functioning _____ ____ cyst. corpus luteum
Serum estridol study is used to measure ______ function and assess ______-secreting tumors. ovarian, estrogen
In men, increased serum estradiol levels in men may indicate ________ tumors. testicular
Serum FSH can detectgonadal failure adn validate ________ status menopause
Venereal disease research lab (______________) testes for _______, and can be made w/in 1-2 week after primary lesion or ___-___ weeks after infection. Flocculation, 4-15
The rapid plasma regain test tests for _______. Syphilis
The normal range of serum hCG assay is <__m.U/mlin non-pregnant females and males 5
The normal range of serum testsosterone levels is ____-____ng/fl (male) and ___-___ng/dl in females. 300-1200; 25-90
Normal ranges for serum progesterone levels: Follicular phase: <__ng/dl Luteal phase: ___-____ng/dl Postmenopausal phase:<__ng/dl Males: __-__ng/dl 50 200-2500 40 10-50
Normal ranges for serum FSH studies are: Follicular phase: _-__m.U/ml Midcycle:8-40 mlU/ml Luteal phase: _-__mlU/ml Postmenopaulas: __-___mlU/m Males: _-__mlU/ml 2-15 8-40 2-15 50-250 2-15
When testing for syphilis, what test should be used after a positive result is determined from a serology test? Flourescent treponemal antibody absorption test.
Gram stain smears are effective for the diagnosis of _______ Chlamydia
Created by: meemers9
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