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Terms Associated with HuG

Agricultural Density ratio of number of farmers to amount of arable land.
Culture Customary beliefs, social forms, and material traits of a group of people in tradition
Hearth Where an idea originates
Acculturation The spread of cultural traits from one society to another
Reference Maps Regular maps showing cities, boundaries, mountains, or roads
Thematic Maps Maps highlighting a particular feature or a single variable such as temperature, city, size, or acreage in potatoes (Gives extra information)
Isoline Maps Show lines that connect points of equal value Isolines are on topographic maps
Choropleth Maps Show the level of some variable within predefined regions, such as counties, states, or countries
Dot Maps Use a dot to represent the occurrence of some phenomenon in order to depict variation in density in a given area
Cartograms Maps that have distorted population
Resolution The amount of details or depth of a map
Scale Generally, the relationship between the portion of Earth being studied and Earth as a whole, specifically the relationship between the size of an object on a map and the size of the actual feature on Earth’s surface
Small Scale Depicts a large area (such as the state of Arizona) but with less detail
Large Scale Depicts a small area (such as downtown Phoenix) with great detail
Cartography The science of making maps
Projection The system used to transfer locations from Earth’s surface to a flat map
Toponym The name given to a portion of Earth’s surface has to be a natural feature
Site The physical character of a place
Situation The location of a place relative to other places (relative location)
Meridian An arc drawn on a map between the North and South poles (longitude)
Parallel A circle drawn around the globe parallel to the equator and at right angles to the meridians (latitude)
Time Zones Eastern, Central, Mountain, and Pacific
Greenwich Mean Time The time in that time zone encompassing the prime meridian, or zero degrees longitude.
International Date Line An arc that for the most part follows 180 degrees longitude, although it deviates in several places to avoid dividing land areas. When you cross the International Date Line heading east (toward America), the clock moves back 24 hours, or one entire day.
Spatial Association The distribution of one phenomenon that is related to another phenomenon. (The reason two things are placed where they are – if they’re related they will probably be close)
Spatial Distribution The arrangement of phenomenon across the Earth’s surface
Environmental Determinism A nineteenth- and early twentieth- century approach to the study of geography that argued that the general laws sought by human geographers could be found in the physical sciences. Geography was therefore the study of how the physical environment caused
Possibilism The theory that the physical environment may set limits on human actions, but people have the ability to adjust to the physical environment and choose a course of action from many alternatives. (States people can overcome the physical problems/features –
Distribution The arrangement of something across Earth’s surface
Density The frequency with which something exists within a given unit of area. Density does not tell you where something is, just strictly numbers
Arithmetic Density The total number of people divided by the total land area
Physiological Density The total number of people divided by all arable land (farmland)
Agricultural Density The total number of farmers (and family) divided by all arable land
Concentration The spread of something over a given area
Pattern The geometric or regular arrangement of something in a study area
Diffusion The spreading of a feature or trend from one place to another over time
Relocation Diffusion The spread of a feature or trend through physical movement of people from one place to another. Does not have to grow in numbers. AIDS is an example of relocation diffusion.
Expansion Diffusion The spread of a feature or trend among people from one area to another in a snowballing process. Involves growing numbers.
Cartography The science of map making
Toponym A name given to a place on earth.
Scale The relationship to a feature’s size on a map to its actual size on earth.
Hierarchical Diffusion The spread of a feature or trend from one key person or node of authority or power to other people or places. Example- grunge music.
Contagious Diffusion The rapid, widespread diffusion of a feature or trend throughout a population. Example- influenza (flu).
Stimulus Diffusion The spread of an underlying principle or thought process,even though a specific characteristic is rejected. Examples- Apple computers/Martin Luther King Jr. (he is dead but his thought process still lives on).
Fractional Scale numerical ratio 1
Written Scale description in words “1 inch equals 1 mile”
Graphic Scale bar line showing distance
Site The physical characteristic of a place
Situation The relative location of a place
Meridian Lines of longitude running in the north-south direction ending at the poles
Parallel Lines of latitude parallel to the equator
Time Zone Greenwich Mean Time – The time at the prime meridian International Date Line – 180 degrees from Prime Meridian – 24 hours Telling time from longitude – every 15 degrees. From Prime Meridian going west loose 1 hour/15 degrees – east gain 1 hour/15 degree
Regions Formal (Uniform) Everyone shared distinct characteristics Functional (Nodal) Area organized around a focal point
Vernacular A perceptual region – beliefs and cultural identity
Spatial Association The distribution of one phenomenon that is scientifically related to the location of another phenomenon
Spatial Distribution The arrangement of phenomenon across the earth’s surface
Distribution The arrangement of a feature in a space Three types – density, concentration, pattern
Globalization of Culture Globalization due to interchanging beliefs and customs
Globalization of Economy Globalization due to business
Environmental Determinism Physical environment dictates the social environment
Possibilism Humans have the ability to adjust to the environment
Demography The study of human populations
Over Population The definition of over population is having too many people and to little resources
Carrying Capacity The largest number of people that the environment of a particular area can support
Doubling Time The time it takes for a population to double
Four most over populated regions/Sparsely populated regions in the world (Over populated) East Asia South Asia Southeast Asia Western Europe
East Asia One fifth of the world’s people live in east Asia. The region borders the pacific ocean. East Asia includes
South Asia Another one fifth of the world’s population lives in south Asia. South Asia includes
Southeast Asia The world’s third largest population cluster is in southeast Asia. A half billion people live in southeast Asia. The islands are
Western Europe World’s fourth largest population cluster. Contains one ninth of the world’s population. Most of Europe’s people live in cities. This region ranges from Monaco to Russia.
Sparsely Populated Regions areas that aren't populated that much
Dry Lands When an area is dry for farming not many people want to live there. These areas cover about 20% of the earth’s land surface. The largest desert region is the Sahara. Deserts lack sufficient water to grow crops to feed many people.
Wet Lands Wet lands are lands that receive high levels of precipitation.
Cold lands Cold lands are areas that are covered with ice or have permanently frozen ground. These regions have less precipitation than some deserts. These polar regions are unsuitable for crops and animals. High lands-Few people live at high elevations. The highes
Population Increase population growth
Doubling time The number of years needed to double a population.
Total fertility rate The average number of children a woman will have during her childbearing years.
Infant mortality rate The annual number of deaths of infants under one year old.
Causes of Population Increase population growth
Crude birth rate (CBR) The total number of live births in a year for every 1,000 people alive in the society. Ex- a (CBR) of 20 means that for every 1,000 people in a country, 20 babies are born over a one year period.
Crude death rate (CDR) total number of deaths in a year for every 1,000 people alive in the society. The annual number of deaths per 1,000 population.
Natural increase rate (NIR) the percentage by which a population grows in a year. To compute you subtract CBR from CDR.
Natural Increase Natural- means a country’s growth rate excludes migration.
Fertility TFR total fertility rate- the average number of children a woman will have throughout her childbearing years (15-49).
Mortality Two useful measures of mortality in addition to the crude death rate already discussed are the infant mortality rate and life expectancy.
Infant mortality rate (IMR) the annual number of deaths of infants under one year of age, compared with total live births.
Life expectancy the average number of years a newborn infant can expect to live at current mortality levels.
Population Pyramid A bar graph representing the distribution of population by age and sex
The Demographic Transition The Basics- There are four stages to the demographic transition
Stage 1 Low Growth
Stage 2 High Growth
Stage 3 Moderate Growth
Stage 4 Low Growth All countries are in one stage or another of the demographic transition.
Stage 1 National increase rate was essentially zero, and world population was constant at about half a million. During this period primary food relied on hunting and gathering.
Stage 2 From about 10,000 years after the agricultural revolution, world population grew at a modest pace. Around 1750 AD the population began to grow ten times as fast.
Stage 3 A country enters stage 3 when the crude birth rate begins to drop sharply. The death rate continues to fall but not as much as in stage 2.
Stage 4 A country achieves stage 4 when birth and death rates are nearly equal and natural increase is almost zero.
Stage 5 Currently no Stage 5 Experts suggesting that there will be in the near future Characterized by a negative population growth
Malthus Theory States that the world will get wiped out by over population, starvation, and disease (mainly the ratio of people to food).
Neo-Malthusians Study Malthus’ theory They point out that the amount of farmland is decreasing while the population is increasing.
Malthus’s Critics Many geographers believe Malthus’ theory is very pessimistic because they based on a belief that the world’s supply is fixed not expanding.
Census A complete enumeration of a population.
Crude Birth Rate The total number of live births in a year for every 1,000 people alive in the society.
Crude Death Rate The total number of deaths in a year fro every 1,000 people alive in the society.
Demographic Transition The process of change in a society’s population from a condition of high crude birth and death rates and low rate of natural increase to a condition of low crude birth and death rates, low rate of natural increase, and a higher total population.
Demography The scientific study of population characteristics.
Dependency Ratio The number of people under the age of 15 and over age 64, compared to the number of people active in the labor force.
Doubling Time The number of years needed to double a population, assuming a constant rate of natural increase.
Epidemiologic Transition Distinctive causes of death in each stage of the demographic transition.
Epidemiology Branch of medical science concerned with the incidence, distribution, and control of diseases that affect large numbers of people.
Ecumene The portion of Earth’s surface occupied by permanent human settlement.
Industrial Revolution A series of improvements in industrial technology that transformed the process of manufacturing goods.
Infant Mortality Rate The total number of deaths in a year among infants under one year old for every 1,000 live births in a society.
Life Expectancy The average number of years an individual can be expected to live, given current social, economic, and medical conditions. Life expectancy at birth is the average number of years a newborn infant can expect to live.
Medical Revolution Medical technology invented in Europe and North America that is diffused to the poorer countries of Latin America, Asia, and Africa. Improved medical practices have eliminated many of the traditional causes of death in poorer countries and enabled more p
Natural Increase Rate The percentage growth of a population in a year, computed as the crude birth rate minus the crude death rate.
Overpopulation The number of people in an area exceeds the capacity of the environment to support life at a decent standard of living.
Pandemic Disease that occurs over a wide geographic area and affects a very high proportion of the population.
Population Pyramid A bar graph representing the distribution of population by age and sex.
Sex Ratio The number of males per 100 females in the population.
Total Fertility Rate The average number of children a woman will have throughout her childbearing years.
Zero Population Growth A decline of the total fertility rate to the point where the natural increase rate equals zero.
Migration Form of relocation diffusion involving permanent move to a new location
Mobility All types of movement from one location to another
Circulation Constant, short term, repetitive movements by an individual
Emigration Migration away from country
Immigration Migration into a country
Net Migration The difference between the number of immigrants and the number of emigrants
Counterurbanization Net migration from urban to rural areas in MDCs
Reasons For Migration Usually people migrate for economic reasons Although not as frequently, cultural and environmental reasons also induce migration
Push factor when people are forced out of an area
Pull factor when people desire to move into a new location
Economic Push and Pull Factors Pull- People emigrate to places with better job opportunities. They will also emigrate because of better natural resources. Metal and coal deposits might attract miners. A brand new industry or store could attract technicians, scientists, engineers, or o
Environmental Push and Pull Factors Pull- people are attracted to areas with warm climates, mountainsides, and seasides. Push- certain physical conditions cause people to move to different areas like too much or too little water in an area can force people to move. Also an area that is sto
Cultural Push and Pull Factors The 2 main push factors are slavery and political instability. Millions of people were captured and shipped to many different countries as prisoners or slaves. People called refugees are forced to migrate form their countries because of fear of persecuti
Pull people migrate for especially the lure of freedom. People are attracted to democratic countries that encourage individual choice in education, career, and a place of residence.
Brain Drain Large-scale emigration by talented people
International Migration The permanent movement from one country to another.
Internal Migration Permanent movement within a particular country.
Internal Migration Permanent movement within a country.
International Migration Divided into two types-Voluntary migration- implies that migrant has chosen to move for economic improvements.
Net Migration The difference between the level of immigration and the level of emigration.
In-Migration synonym of immigration, moving into a country
Out-migration leaving a country Countries with net out-migrations include Asia, Africa, and Latin America. Countries with net in-migrations include North America, Europe, and Oceania. Guest Workers
Temporary Migration for Work 1. Guest Workers – Citizens of poor communities who obtain jobs in Western Europe and the Middle East. 2. Time – Contract Workers -Recruited for a fixed period of time to work in mines or on plantations. European Guest Workers
Popular Culture Culture found in a large, heterogeneous society that shares certain habits despite differences in other personal characteristics
Folk Culture Culture traditionally practiced by a small, homogeneous, rural group living in relative isolation from other groups
Origin of Folk Cultures Folk customs often have anonymous hearths, originating from anonymous sources, at unknown dates, through unidentified originators
Origin of Pop Cultures Popular culture is most often a product of the economically more developed countries, especially in North America, Western Europe, and Japan
Transition from Folk to Pop Culture Most of the world turns from folk to pop culture.
Taboo A restriction on behavior imposed by social custom
Diffusion Associated With Pop Culture Rapid diffusion depends on a group of people having a sufficiently high level of economic development to acquire the material possessions associated with popular culture
Language Family A collection of languages related to each other through a common ancestor long before recorded history
Language Branch A collection of languages related through a common ancestor that existed several thousand years ago. Differences are not as extensive or as old as with language families, and archaeological evidence can confirm that the branches derived from the same fam
Language Group A collection of languages within a branch that share a common origin in the relatively recent past and display relatively few differences in grammar and vocabulary
Dialect A regional variety of a language distinguished by vocabulary, spelling, and pronunciation
Old English Speakers West Germanic invaders from Jutland (Denmark) known as the Anglos, Saxons, and Jutes began populating the British Isles in the 5th and 6th centuries AD
Creolized Language A language that results from the mixing of a colonizer’s language with the indigenous language of the people being dominated
Indo-European Language Family The world’s most extensively spoken language family by a wide margin Nearly 3 billion people speak an Indo-European language as their first language
Ideograms The system of writing used in China and other East Asian countries in which each symbol represents an idea or a concept rather than a specific sound, as is the case with letters in English
Religion Religion, Culture, and Physical Environment
Religion Hierarchy A hierarchical religion has a well-defined geographic structure and organizes territory into local administrative units (has “rankings” amongst the religion). A good example is Roman Catholicism (Pope, Cardinals, Bishops).
Universalizing Religion A religion that attempts to appeal to all people, not just those living in a particular location 3 Biggs – Christianity, Islam, Buddhism
Christianity Origin – Israel 2 billion adherents Known as Christians Mainly in Western Hemisphere and Europe Foundation based on the Ten Commandments Major branches- Catholics (50%). Protestants (25%), Eastern Orthodox (10%)
Islam Origin – Saudi Arabia 1.3 billion adherents Known as Muslims Foundation based on the Five Pillars Major branches- Sunnis (83%), Shiites (16%), Kurds (1%)
Buddhism Origin – NE India/Nepal 370 million adherents Known as Buddhists Mainly in China and SE Asia Foundation based on the Four Noble Truths
Ethnic Religion A religion with a relatively concentrated spatial distribution whose principles are likely to be based on the physical characteristics of the particular location in which its adherents are concentrated 2 Biggs – Hinduism and Judaism
Hinduism Origin – India/Pakistan 800 million adherents (3rd largest overall) 97% live in India (80% of India’s pop.) Believe in several gods – Brahma being the main one Follow the Caste System Believe in Karma and Reincarnation
Judaism Origin – Israel 14 million adherents Mainly clustered in Israel and the US Also prevent in former USSR (Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Lithuania) Have similar roots as Christianity and Islam
Ireland The most troublesome religious boundary in Western Europe lies on Ireland. Most of Ireland is Roman Catholic, but Northern Ireland is 58% Protestant and 42% Roman Catholic.
Israel/Palestine After the 1973 war, the Palestinians emerged as Israel’s principle opponent. Israelis have no intention of giving up control of the Old City of Jerusalem, and Palestinians have no intention of giving up their claim to it.
Religious Architectures Christians – Churches Muslims – Mosques Hindus – Temples Buddhism – Pagodas Jews – Synagogues
Religion Versus Communism Organized religion was challenged in the 20th century by the rise of communism in Eastern Europe and Asia. The three religions most affected were Eastern Orthodox Christianity, Islam, and Buddhism.
US Distribution of Ethnicities African American – (13%) Southeast Hispanic American – (13%) Southwest Asian American – (4%) West American Indian (Native American) – (1%) Southwest and Plains States
Clustering of Ethnicities Within a country, clustering of ethnicities can occur on two scales. Ethnic groups may live in particular regions of the country, and they may live in particular neighborhoods within cities.
Sharecropper A person who works fields rented from a landowner and pays the rent and repays loans by turning over to the landowner a share of the crops
Ghettos When the African American immigrants reached the big cities, they clustered in the one or two neighborhoods where the small numbers who had arrived in the 19th century were already living. These areas became known as ghettos. The ghettos today have been
Ethnicity and Race Race is biological. An example would be skin color, but its not just skin color. Ethnicity is the cultural aspect/category. An example would be a hearth.
Separate But Equal Doctrine The Separate But Equal Doctrine occurred in 1896. It allowed segregation of Blacks, Jews, and Roman Catholics.
“White Flight” “White Flight” comes from the Brown vs. Brown of Education doctrine in 1954, which eliminated segregation. ‘White Flight” is when whites left their homes to where they knew would be a dominate white area because they were scared of the blacks.
South Africa Apartheid Apartheid is the physical separation of different races into different areas. The white-dominated government of South Africa repealed the apartheid laws in 1991. In 1994, Nelson Mandela became president of South Africa.
Nationality Nationality is identity with a group of people that share legal attachment and personal allegiance to a particular place as a result of being born there.
Nation-State A state whose territory corresponds to that occupied by a particular ethnicity that has been transformed into a nationality Have by far one dominate ethnicity/nationality – 1 country, 1 ethnicity
Self Determinism (Separatism) The concept that ethnicities have the right to govern themselves Quebec (Province in Canada) – early 1980s strong French Australia Israel/Palestine Native Americans
Multi-Ethnic States/Multi-National States state that contains more than one ethnicity Don’t necessarily try to appeal to every ethnicity – sometimes happy, sometimes not
Nationalism Nationalism is loyalty and devotion to a particular nationality.
Block Busting Real estate agents telling people that blacks or Indians were going to move next door to them so they could buy the peoples’ house for very cheap and sell it for double.
Balkanization States/countries breaking down through ethnic conflict – constant conflict
Balkanized A geographic area that can’t be stable/happy because there are too many ethnicities and too much ugly history between them. Servia Boznia Balkan Peninsula
Political Geography Colonies, Early European States, and Ancient and Medieval States
Modern Colonies Today only a handful of colonies remain. Nearly all are islands in the Pacific Ocean or Caribbean Sea
Compact State a state in which the distance form the center to any boundary does not vary significantly
Fragmented State a state that includes several discontinuous pieces of territory
Elongated State a state with a long, narrow shape
Prorupted State an otherwise compact state with a large projecting extension
Perforated State a state that completely surrounds another one
Boundaries invisible line that marks the extent of a state's territory
Physical- natural boundaries (oceans, rivers, mountains)-
Geometric map
Created by: Ms.Elmore
Popular AP Human Geography sets




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