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Exam 3 IN

Define Learning process of acquiring new information
Define Memory ability to store and retrieve information
What is the law of mass action? severity of memory impairment correlates to the size of the cortical lesion
What is the significance of patient H.M? had bilateral temporal surgery for epilepsy and developed Anterograde amnesia
What is Anterograde amnesia? cant make new memories past "x" but can remember prior to "x"
What is Retrograde amnesia? can't remember old memories but can make new ones
What regions of H.M's brain were altered? (ablations) Hippocampus Parahippocampal gyrus Amygdala (did not alter mood)
What is the Morris Water Maze? Control= Rat were put into a pool with hidden platform they learned where the platform was. Experiment= Rats were given hippocampal lesions and they were unable to learn where the platform was
What is the significance of Morris Water Maze? Hippocampus is needed to encode and consolidate memories
What is the extent of short term memory? 7+/- 2 digits for 30 sec
What is Declarative/explicit memory? conscious memory ( daily recaps, words and their meanings, history, etc...)
What is Nondeclarative/implicit memory? non-conscious memory (motor skills, associations, priming, puzzle solving skills, etc...)
Patient H.M. had complete deficits in acquiring ____ _______ memory? new declarative
What type of memory mostly remained intact in patient H.M? non-declarative/implicit memory
What is episodic memory? memory of "episodes"/events of life
What is semantic memory? facts (ex: Austin is the capital of Tx)
How did lesions of patient K.C affect their memory? deficits of antero- & retro-grade episodic memory semantic memory remined intact (could acquire some new ones)
What is the significance of patient K.C? suggest hippocampus is specific for episodic memory
Episodic and Semantic are what types of memory? Declarative
Skill learning, Priming, and Conditioning are what types of memory? Non-declarative
What is Priming? exposure to once stimulus can evoke response of linked stimuli
What are Associations in relation to memory? role of previous knowledge and/or motivation
what areas of the brain are associated with the BG? BG. Ventral Thalamus, Amygdala, SN, Cerebellum, Premotor cortex
What areas of the brain are associated with Declarative memory? Thalamus, Hippocampus, Rhinal cortex, Amygdala, Mammillary body, Prefrontal cortex, Basal forebrain, Fornix
Within the hippocampus, what is LTP? strengthening of connection between CA3 & CA1 synapse(s)
What is early phase long term memory (LTM)? memory that last days-weeks
What is late phase LTM? memory that last months-years
What is Synaptic Plasticity? generation and degradation of new synapses between neurons
What is LTP? Long Term Potentiation (LTP), form of synaptic plasticity
What are the similarities between LTP and LTM? triggered rapidly depends on synthesis of new proteins last for many months
Within a synapse, what does "learning" generate? Postsynaptic receptors that allow neuron to register the increase NT release (also caused by learning)
CA3 pyramidal cells are on what side of the synapse? Presynaptic
CA1 pyramidal cells are on what side of the synapse? Postsynaptic
What is tetanization? High frequency stimulation (triggered by rehearsal during the learning process)
What does rehearsal lead to? increased number of Axonal Termini per Dendritic spine = increased memory & learning
What is LTD? Long Term Depression, retraction of synapses (axonal termini retract from dendritic spine)
What do we think LTD is responsible for? forgetting of information previously learned
On the synaptic level, describe the process of STM NT (glutamate) bind to AMPARs & NMDARs on the postsynaptic neuron and allow Ca2+ influx. Ca2+ activates Calmodulin which activates Protein Kinases
On the synaptic level, describe the process of late-phase LTM NT (glutamate) bind to AMPARs & NMDARs on the postsynaptic neuron and allow Ca2+ influx. Ca2+ activates Calmodulin which activates Protein Kinases. PKA triggers the CREB cycle which produces nerve growth factor. Then NGF triggers AMPAR synthesis
Which receptor involved in late-phase LTM is fast acting? AMPA
Which receptor involved in late-phase LTM is slow acting? NMDA
What normally occurs when aging? Decrease in brain volume
Why does brain volume decrease as we age? mostly due to loss of synapses (keep same # of neurons, just lose excess connections)
What memory declines early on? STM (working memory)
What are key contributors to age-related decline in various cognitive function? executive function impairment
What are the 3 Hypotheses of AD? Amyloid plaques Neurofibrially Tangle Loss of neurons
What is the Amyloid Plaque hypothesis of AD? mutant genes (presenilin 1 & 2) increase risk of developing toxic form of amyloid beta
What are Amyloid plaques? Amyloid beta, normally has enzymatic and neuroprotective functions, toxic mutation can lead to AD
What is the Neurofibrially Tangle hypothesis of AD? AD is caused by the clumping of hyperphosphorylated tau proteins
What are Tau proteins? proteins that normally stabilize cytoskeletal microtubules, tangling can lead to AD
What characterizes sleep? reduced or absent consciousness relatively suspended sensory activity inactivity of nearly all voluntary muscles
What are the functions of sleep? Restoration Energy Conservation Ecological adaptation Memory Consolidation
What other forms of sleep are there? sleeping for short periods of time (couple mins) one hemisphere sleeps at a time
What is an Ultradian rhythm? occurring multiple times a day (eating, breathing, heart rate, action potentials etc.)
What is a Circadian rhythm? occurs about once a day (sleep wake cycle, hormones, body temp regulation, electrolyte regulation etc...)
What is an Infradian rhythm? occurring over multiple days (mensuration, aging, development, etc...)
How long does the circadian rhythm last? 26+ hours (inaccurate clock)
When does melatonin secretion start? around 9pm (21:00)
When does melatonin secretion stop? around 7:30 am (07:30)
When does melatonin secretion start to slow? after midnight (00:00)
What is the SCN? Suprachiasmatic Nucleus
What does the SCN control the circadian rhythm of ? sleep physical activity alertness hormone levels body temp immune function digestive activity
Where is light-induced gene expression shown in the SCN? Ventrolateral SCN
What is Entrainment? relay of light stimulation throughout SCN by the ventrolateral SCN
How is the Pineal gland modulated by the SCN? sympathetic preganglionic neurons
What secretes melatonin? Pineal gland
What are RGCs? Photosensitive retinal ganglion cells
Where do RGCs synapse in the circadian circuit? SCN of Hypothalamus
Where does the SCN project to in the circadian circuit? Paraventricular Nucleus of Hypothalamus
Where does the Paraventricular nucleus project to in the circadian circuit? Spinal cord (Intermediolateral cell column)
Where do Intermediolateral column cells project to in the circadian circuit? Superior cervical ganglion
Where do Superior Cervical Ganglion project to in the circadian circuit? Pineal Gland
What does melatonin do? decrease motor activity, induce fatigue, and lower body temp
Is melatonin endogenous or exogenous? endogenous
What does darkness "signal/tell" the SCN to do? turn on pineal gland to produce melatonin
How many sleep cycles so we experience throughout the night? 3-4
What stage of sleep accounts for 4-5% of a cycle? Stage 1
What stage of sleep account for 45-55% of a cycle? Stage 2
What stage of sleep accounts for 4-6% of a cycle? Stage 3
What stage of sleep accounts for 12-25% of a cycle? Stage 4
What stage of sleep accounts for 20-25% of a cycle? REM (stage 5)
What defines Stage 1 of the sleep cycle? light sleep muscle activity slows down with occasional twitching
What defines stage 2 of the sleep cycle? Respiration and Heart rate slows Slight decrease in body temp
What defines stage 3 of the sleep cycle? Deep sleep starts slow delta waves
What defines stage 4 of the sleep cycle? v deep sleep rhythmic breathing limited muscle activity delta waves
What defines stage 5 (REM) of the sleep cycle? Rapid Eye Movement Brainwaves speed up Dreaming Muscles relax Heart rate increases Rapid and shallow breathing
When does most benefits of sleep occur? REM
What EEG aspect is shown during stage 1 of the sleep cycle? theta activity
During the sleep cycle when is brain activity similar to Awake? REM
What EEG aspect is shown during stage 2 of the sleep cycle? sleep spindles
What EEG aspect is shown during stage 3&4 of the sleep cycle? Delta (slow wave sleep)
What is another name for REM sleep? Paradoxical sleep
What EEG activity is shown when awake? alpha and beta activity
Typically, how many SWS stages occur per night? 2
How many REM stages occur per night? 5 that progressively get longer
How is a single sleep cycle measured? Awake->REM
How does the reticular formation cause decreased motor output during REM sleep? GABAergic cells of the Pedunculopontine nucleus (RF) suppressing LMN activity
During which stage of the sleep cycle is brain energy consumption the least? stage 4
What stages of sleep have similar levels of brain energy consumption? Awake and REM
Non-REM sleep is characterized by a ____ brain in an _____ body? inactive, active
REM sleep is characterized by a _____ brain in an _____ body? active, inactive
What characterizes non-REM dreams? shorter less visual less emotional more thought-like related to everyday activities
What characterizes REM dream? longer movie-like emotional sometimes "bizarre"
What circuit shows an increase in activity during REM sleep? Limbic system (emotion processing)
What areas of the brain decrease in activity during REM sleep? Prefrontal cortex and Posterior Cingulate cortex
What is REM atonia? Decreased motor output during REM sleep
What nuclei is suppressed by RF neurons during REM sleep to decrease sensory response? Dorsal Column Nuclei
What is the Reticular Activating System? (circuitry for sleep and wakefulness) stimulation of Cholinergic neurons in the Pons and Midbrain to promote wakefullness
What is the source of Pontine-Geniculo-Occipital (PGO) waves during REM sleep? Reticular activating system
Where do cholinergic nuclei in the Pons and Midbrain project to ? Thalamus and Cortex
When does cholinergic nuclei in the Pons and Midbrain show high activity? During Waking
What does low activity of cholinergic nuclei in the pons and midbrain bring on? non-REM sleep
What gradually increase in activity during REM-sleep? Cholinergic nuclei in the Pons and Midbrain (Reticular activating system)
What kind of neurons are in the Raphe? Serotonergic
When are 5-HT neurons of the Raphe active? wakefulness
Noradrenergic neurons of the Locus Coeruleus (LC) are _____ during sleep inactive
When are noradrenergic neurons of the LC active? waking and arousal/stress
What kind of neurons in the Tuberomammillary nucleus (TMN) of the Hypothalamus promote wakefulness? HA (histamine)
Why do antihistamines cause drowsiness? affect same HARs that promote wakefullness (antihistamine comp antag?)
What NT promotes wakefulness, regulates appetite, and modulates the TMN and LC? Orexin
What does Orexin do to brain nuclei with roles in wakefulness? excite
What disorder destroys Orexin neurons? Narcolepsy
What does Adenosine do to Orexin decrease release (inhibits)
What NT presynaptically inhibits Glu and DA? Adenosine
What is caffeine to adenosine? antag, bind and inactivates receptor
What can happen when someone builds up caffeine tolerance? increased metabolism of caffeine
What is Narcolepsy? sleep attacks with cataplexy
What is cataplexy? loss of muscle control
What causes Narcolepsy? mutation of orexin receptors
How fast does someone with Narcolepsy go into REM sleep? within 5mins, almost immediately
BDZs inhibit the ___ and Na+ channels by increasing ______ activity CNS, GABA
What are BDZs used as? Anxiolytics, Hypnotics, and Anesthesia (dose dependent)
Damage to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, like in the Phineas Gage case, produces what kind of behavior? erratic, "acquired sociopathy"
What is acquired sociopathy? brain injury that causes no reaction to emotional events, and inability to make personal or social decisions
What part of the brain is mostly involved in impulse control? ventral orbitofrontal cortex
What is the James-Lange theory? conscious feeling follows bodily changes
What evidence was there to support the james-lange theory? using facial muscles to mimic emotion can produce said emotion, people with spinal cord damage show reduced emotional intensity
What ensure that muscle movements match the appropriate emotion? Behavior
What facilitates behavior? ANS activity
What facilitates ANS activity? Hormones
What is arousal level? biological release of adrenaline, can be (+) or (-) emotions
What component of emotion prepares the body for action and allows for us to communicate our emotion to other people? Peripheral
What does arousal enhance? intellectual and physical performance
What is the cannon-bard theory? Emotional expression results from hypothalamus and emotional feeling results from stimulations of dorsal thalamus (**arousal does not have to occur before the emotion**)
What is Sham Rage? undirected defensive and offensive aggression in animals
What connection is required for Sham rage? brainstem connection to caudal hypothalamus
What can cause uninhibited hypothalamic discharge (sham rage) in humans? hypothalamic lesions, carbon monoxide poisoning, and insulin hypoglycemia
What inhibits anger? severing connection between Caudal Hypothalamus and Brain Stem
What does the hypothalamus contribute to expression of emotion? coordinates peripheral expression
What is the HPA axis? Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (connection of paraventricular nucleus of hypothalamus to ant. pituitary to adrenal glands)
What does the HPA axis regulate? hormonal stress response
What hormone is released by the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus in response to stress? CRH (corticotropin-releasing hormone)
What hormone is released into the bloodstream by the anterior pituitary in response to CRH? ACTH (adreno-corticotropic hormone)
What hormone does the Adrenal gland release into the bloodstream in response to ACTH? Cortisol (stress response), Norepinephrine & Epinephrine (adrenaline response)
What effects does stress have on the body? suppresses immune system and increases HR, BP, Catabolism
What is the Papez circuit? (7 steps, 6 structures and 1 white matter tract) Hippocampus--> Mammillary Bodies --> Mammillothalamic Tract --> Anterior Thalamic Nucleus --> Cingulate Gyrus --> Hippocampal Formation
What is Kluver-Bucy syndrome? bilateral lesions of amygdala resulting is decreased emotional reactions, Pica or Overeating, Hyperorality, Hypersexuality, and Visual agnosia
What is Visual agnosia? inability to recognize familiar objects or people
What is Hyperorality? tendency or compulsion to examine objects by mouth
What role does the Amygdala play in emotions? mediates emotional behavior and motivation by evaluating emotional value of sensory stimuli
What systems does the Amygdala represent a connection for? Limbic and Extrapyramidal systems
How does language let us express thoughts to the outside world? through syntactic rules and words
What are the basic functions of language? Comprehension (sensory/perceptual function) and Speaking ( motor function)
What is the sensory/perceptual function of language? Comprehension
What is the motor function of language? Speaking
What is grammar? rules of how symbols and words go together
Where is Broca's Areas? Frontal cortex of dominant hemisphere (usually left)
What role in language does Broca's area play? speech production
What role does Wernicke's area play in language? comprehension/understanding of written and spoken language
Where is Wernicke's area? Temporal lobe near Auditory cortex of dominant hemisphere (usually left)
What white matter tract connects Wernicke's and Broca's areas? Arcuate Fasciculus
What is the Arcuate Fasciculus? white matter tract connecting speech comprehension areas with speech production areas
What does a FOXP2 mutation cause? impairment of orofacial movements which inhibit ability to make proper word sounds
T/F: People with FOXP2 gene mutation can speak, just not very well T
What is the importance of FOXp2 gene? encodes transcription factor required for proper brain and lung development
What is Broca's Aphasia? Expressive Aphasia, slow and non-fluent speech (know what they want to say but cant get it out)
what would lesions in the left posterior frontal lobe cause? motor planning deficits
What is Dysarthria? inability to move muscles that mediate speech (mouth, tongue, and larynx)
What is Wernicke's Aphasia? Sensory/Receptive Aphasia, impairment of written and spoken language comprehension (speech is normal but nonsense, they also don't know they are not making sense)
What is conduction aphasia? Associative aphasia, fluent and meaningful speech with very poor repetition
What causes conduction aphasia? Arcuate Fasciculus conveys info about sounds but not meaning, causes disruption of short-term memory/rehearsal of words and speech (**lesions w/in arcuate fasciculus**)
What Aphasias have fluent speech production? Wernicke's and Conduction
What Aphasias have impaired speech production? Broca's
What Aphasias have impaired sentence repetition? Broca's, Wernicke's, and Conduction
What Aphasias have normal speech comprehension? Broca's and Conduction
What Aphasias have impaired speech comprehension? Wernicke's
What type of Aphasias have impaired naming of objects? Wernicke's and Conduction
What type of aphasias have a normal naming of objects function? Broca's
What hemisphere is mostly responsible for speech? Left, ~90% of people
What would lesions in the dominant speech hemisphere do to the lateralization? might shift it to non dominant hemisphere
What % of right handed people have right-hemisphere speech dominance? 4%
What % of ambidextrous people have right hemisphere speech dominance? 15%
What % of left-handed people have right hemisphere speech dominance? 27%
What is spilt brain? corpus callosum and anterior commissure is transected (cut)
What is split brain treatment for? Epilepsy
What projections remain intact in split brain patients? bilateral thalamic projections
How does split brain affect the left hemisphere? able to name object within the right hand or right visual field
How does spilt brain affect the right hemisphere? objects in the left hand or left visual field struggle to be named
What is stereognosis? ability to perceive the form of solid objects by touch or brief exposure to a visual field
What is the Planum Temporale? cortical area posterior to auditory cortex within sylvian fissure
What is the anatomical difference in left and right Planum Temporale? Cone shaped (starts thinner and ends wider) in the left compared to more rectangle shape in the right (** left is larger than right**)
Westward travel is less disruptive to the circadian rhythm than eastward travel, partially due to the fact that it is easier to sleep _____ rather than ______. easier to sleep later rather than when not sleepy
What is melatonin? hormone that activates sleep
What is the pathway that uses external lighting conditions to alter circadian rhythms? Retinal Thalamic
What effect will light have on melatonin? suppress
Which rhythms are shorter than circadian rhythms? Ultradian
Created by: trejonathan93
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