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NBDHE Anatomy

The basics

QuestionAnswer
What are the sutures of the brain? Coronal, Saggital, Lambdoidal, and Squamous
What is the foramen located at the base of the occipital bone that allows the nerves of the spinal cord to reach the brain called? Foramen Magnum
What does the frontal bone consist of? The upper part of the forehead, the area around the eyes, and the eyebrows
What is the name of the bone located at the center of the skull and extends to the other bones of the skull? The sphenoid bone
What is the function of the sphenoid bone? To support the nerves and blood vessels that supply the face, teeth, tongue, eyes and ears
What is the name of the single bone that houses the nasal cavity and the sinuses? The ethmoid bone
What is the purpose of the sutures of the skull? To protect the brain and eyes, and to form the nasal passages
What structure is formed by the maxilla? The roof of the mouth
What structures does the maxilla contain? the sinuses, zygomatic process (cheek bone), frontal process, palatine process, and orbital process
What is the structure that the maxillary tuberosity contains which allows the superior alveolar nerves, veins, and arteries to reach the maxilary teeth and gingival? The posterior superior alveolar foramina
What two structures form the TMJ? The temporal bone and condyle of the mandible
What is the function of the TMJ? It allows the mandible to move forward, backward, up and down, and side to side.
What type of joint is the Temporomandubular Joint? A synovial joint
What is the doughnut shaped tendon that cushions both bones of the TMJ called? The meniscus or fibrous disc
What are some common issues that cause TMJ dysfunction? Tearing or displacement of the meniscus, malocclusion of the teeth which puts strain on the muscles of the TMJ, congenital malformations, bone degeneration caused by arthritis and tumors.
What are the muscles of mastication? Temporalis, Masseter, Medial Pterygoid, and Lateral Pterygoid
What is the name of the nerve branch that the muscles of mastication receive sensation from the brain through? The motor branch of the Trigeminal (V3) nerve
Where do the medial and lateral pterygoid muscles originate? On the lateral pterygoid plate and the superior head of the sphenoid bone
Where do the medial and lateral pterydoid muscles attach? At the angle of the mandible
What is the cranial nerve associated with the muscles of facial expression? The facial nerve (VII)
What is the name of the muscle that encircles the mouth and purses the lips? Obicularis Oris
What is the function of the depressor labii inferioris muscle? to depress the angle of the lower lip
What is the muscle of the chin? Mentalis
What is the function of the buccinator? to pull the lip to the side and help to keep food on the occlusal surface of the teeth while chewing
Which muscle widens the mouth? Risoris muscle
What is the function of the Levator labii superioris alaeque nasi muscles? to raise the upper lip and the ala of the nose
What are the functions of the zygomaticus major and minor muscles? to raise the angle of the mouth
Which muscle pulls down the mouth in a frown, and raises the skin of the neck? Platysma
Which muscles close the eyelid, cause frown lines, and raise the eyebrows? Orbicularis oculi, Corrugator supercilii, and frontal belly of the epicranius muscles
Name the five branches of the maxillary branch of the trigeminal nerve PSA, MSA, ASA, NP, GP
What are the three branches of the mandibular branch of the trigeminal nerve? Auriculotemporal, lingual, and inferior alveolar nerves
What structures are anesthetized by the PSA? The first, second and third maxillary molars, and their overlying buccal tissues, sometimes excluding the mesiobuccal root of the first molar
What structures does the MSA anesthetize? The first and second premolars and the mesiobuccal root of the first molar and their overlying buccal tissues
What structures does the ASA anesthetize? The central and lateral incisors and canine and overlying facial tissues
What structures does the GP anesthetize? The palatal tissues of the maxillary molars and premolars
What structures does the NP anesthetize? The palatal tissues of the maxillary anterior teeth
What is the name of the structure through which the Posterior Superior Alveolar nerve must travel through? The Posterior Superior Alveolar Foramina
What structures are anesthetized by the Incisive injection? The mandibular anterior teeth, and surrounding periodontium
What structures are anesthetized by the Mental injection? The facial gingiva of the mandibular anterior teeth, the chin, lower lip, and labial mucosa
What two nerves branch from the inferior alveolar nerve? The mental and incisive nerves
Where does the mental nerve exit the mandibular canal? the mental foramen
What structures does the buccal injection anesthetize? the facial gingiva of the mandibular molars and premolars
What structures does the lingual injection anesthetize? the floor of the mouth, tongue, and mandibular lingual gingiva
Which veins drain the area of the head? The internal and external jugular veins
Where is the most reliable pulse found? The carotid sinus about a finger width below the angle of the jaw
What are the four arteries that form the Circle of Willis? The right and left internal carotid arteries, and two posterior vertebral arteries that go through the foramen magnum.
Which arteries provide most of the nutrition to the head? The subclavian and common carotid arteries
True/False: The veins of the head and neck have valves to prevent backflow and therefore are resistant to infection. False
What are the functions of epithelial tissues? To cover or line surfaces, and form specialized structures such as enamel and salivary glands
Where does the epithelial tissues get their nutrition? from the connective tissues
What are the types of connective tissues? Loose, Dense, Cartilage, Bone, Fluid
What are the functions of connective tissues? To support, hydrate, and bind other tissues together, in addition to carrying nutrients
What are the types of muscle tissues? Skeletal, Smooth, and Cardiac
What are the types of nerve tissue and where are they found? Soft, fragile located in the CNS
What is the CNS composed of? Brain and Spinal Cord
What is the PNS composed of? The rest of the body
When do the primary mandibular central incisors erupt? 6-10 months
When do the primary maxillary central incisors erupt? 8-12 months
When do the primary maxillary lateral incisors erupt? 9-13 months
When do the primary mandibular lateral incisors erupt? 10-16 months
When do the primary maxillary canines erupt? 16-22 months
When do the primary mandibular first molars erupt? 14-18 months
When do the primary mandibular canines erupt? 17-23 months
When do the primary maxillary first molars erupt? 13-19 months
When do the primary mandibular second molars erupt? 23-31 months
When do the primary maxillary second molars erupt? 25-33 months
When do the permanent mandibular central incisors erupt? 6-7 yrs
When do the permanent maxillary central incisors erupt? 7-8 yrs
When do the permanent mandibular lateral incisors erupt? 7-8 yrs
When do the permanent maxillary and mandibular first molars erupt? 6-7 yrs
When do the permanent maxillary lateral incisors erupt? 8-9 yrs
When do the permanent maxillary first premolars erupt? 10-11 yrs
When do the permanent mandibular first premolars erupt? 11-12 yrs
When do the permanent mandibular second molars erupt? 11-13 yrs
When do the permanent mandibular canines erupt? 9-10 yrs
When do the permanent maxillary canines erupt? 11-12 yrs
When do the permanent maxillary second molars erupt? 12-13 yrs
When do the third molars or wisdom teeth erupt? 17-21 yrs
What is the function of the primary teeth? To allow the child to learn to chew solid food, and they hold the position in the jaw for the permanent teeth.
What is the function of the incisors? to cut food
What is the function of the canines (cuspids)? to tear food
What is the function of the molars? to crush food
How many roots do the primary incisors, laterals and canines have? one root
How many roots do the primary mandibular molars have? two roots
How many roots do the primary maxillary molars have? three roots
Why do primary teeth have more bulbous curves than permanent teeth? Because of the restriction of the CEJ
How many cusps and roots does the permanent mandibular premolar have? two cusps and one root
How many roots does the permanent maxillary first premolar have? two
How many roots does the permanent maxillary second premolar have? one, sometimes two
How many cusps do permanent molars have? four
What are the roots of the permanent maxillary molars? palatal root, mesiobuccal root, and distobuccal root
Define occlusion the relationship of the mandibular arch with the maxillary arch, and also the relationship of the teeth within the arch
Define concentric occlusion the habitual position of the teeth as the person tries to find the maximum contact with equal force of the teeth
What is the name of the usual occlusion classification standard? Angle's Classification of Malocclusion
What is the hardest structure of the human body? Enamel
What is the inorganic to organic ratio of enamel? 96% inorganic, 4% organic
How is enamel formed? It is formed by ameloblasts, which form enamel out of hydroxyapatite crystals of calcium phosphate in a matrix of rods, rod sheaths, and interrod substance
Where do the Ameloblasts come from? Ectodermal tissue
What is the inorganic to organic ratio of Cementum? 50% inorganic, 50% organic
Is cementum cellular or acellular? It is cellular in the cervical half and acellular in the apical half of the tooth.
What is the function of Cementum? to cover the dentin in the root of the tooth and provide an attachment surface for the periodontal ligament
Where are cementoblasts located? in the PDL
What is the function of cementoblasts? to form collagen fibers and hydroxyapatite in the matrix
What is the outer surface of cementum called? cementoid
Is cementoid hypercalcified or hypocalcified? Hypocalcified
What does the cementoid contain? Sharpey's fibers of PDL
What is the inorganic to organic ratio of Dentin? 70% inorganic, 30% organic
What is the first part of the tooth to mineralize? Dentin
What structures form dentin? Dentin is formed by dental papilla by odontoblasts
What does dentin contain? collagen and hydroxyapatite crystals
What is secondary or reparative dentin? dentin that forms throughout the life of the tooth in response to trauma or caries
What is sclerotic dentin? dentin that forms when the odontoblasts degenerate and the tubules fill with calcium salt
What happens if the odontoblasts die but the tubule does not fill with calcium salt? the tooth dies
What is the pulp? the non-mineralized portion of the tooth which develops from the dental papilla
What does the pulp contain? nerves and the blood supply
What structure is responsible for maintaining the pulp? Fibroblasts
What do the Histocytes and Undifferentiated mesenchymal cells do within the pulp? They defend against disease
Which structures within the pulp help defend against disease? Histocytes and undifferentiated mesenchymal cells
Which fibers form the dentinal matrix? Korff's fibers
Which cells repair the dentinal matrix? Odontoblasts
What is the periodontal ligament (PDL)? a specialized connective tissue that attaches the cementum of the tooth to the bone.
What does the PDL produce? cementum and lamina dura
True/False: The PDL does not calcify TRUE
Sharpey;s fibers consist of six different types of connective fibers. Name these fibers Free Gingival, Transseptal, Alveolar crest, Horizontal, Apical, Oblique, and Interradicular fibers
What do free gingival fibers connect? the gingiva to the tooth
What do transseptal fibers connect? the mesial surface to the distal surface of adjacent teeth
What do alveolar crest fibers do? they help resist horizontal movement by connecting the alveolar crest to the cementum
What is the function of horizontal fibers? to resist horizontal pressure by connecting cementum to bone
What do apical fibers do? surround the apex of the tooth to connect it to the bone.
What is the function of oblique fibers? to prevent the apex of the tooth from being jammed into the socket by connecting obliquely from the bone toward the crown
What is the function of interradicular fibers? to help stabilize multi-rooted teeth by connecting multiple roots and bone
What is the inorganic to organic ratio of alveolar bone? 50% inorganic, 50% organic
What is the function of alveolar bone? to surround and support the teeth
What is compact bone? the cortical plate which is the outside wall of the mandible and maxilla
What is trabecular bone? spongy bone which makes the inside wall of the mandible and maxilla
What is hemopoiesis? the formation of blood by red bone marrow
What does yellow bone marrow consist of? fatty tissue
What fills the spaces around the trabeculae? Red and yellow bone marrow
What is the periosteum? the structure which covers the outside of the bone
What is the endosteum? the structure that covers the inside of the bone
Which cells form bone? osteoblasts
What are osteocytes? osteoblasts that are trapped inside the bone and maintain contact with adjacent osteocytes
What is the lacunae? the space occupied by the osteocytes
What is the lamallae? thin layers of mature bone that consist of circumferential bone (the outer layer) and subendosteal (the surface of trabecular) bone
What consists of the Haversian System the Haversian canal and Volkmann's canal
What does the Haversian canal do? it carries tiny blood vessels
What is the Volkmann's canal? the canal through which the blood vessels carried by the Haversian canal pass
What is gingiva comprised of? fibrous connective tissue and stratified squamous epithelial tissues
Where does gingiva attach? to the underlying bone
What is the sulcus? the space between the gingiva and the tooth. It surrounds the tooth and ends at the epithelial attachment to the tooth
What is the free gingiva? the gingiva that is not attached to the tooth
What is the mucogingival junction? the layer between the gingiva and the bone where the attached gingiva ends.
What is another name for oral epithelium? Ectoderm
This tissue thickens to form the dental lamina Ectoderm
How does the tooth germ form? It begins to form from the dental lamina into the underlying tissue (mesoderm)
Which organ forms enamel? the enamel organ
What does the dental papilla form? Dentin and Pulp
What forms the dentin and pulp? dental papilla
What forms the PDL, cementum and lamina dura? the dental sac
What does the dental sac form? the PDL, cementum and lamina dura
What separates the enamel organ from the dental papilla? The basement membrane or DEJ
What are the parts of the ename organl? outer enamel epithelium, stellate reticulum, stratum intermedium and cuboidal cells in the inner enamel epithelium
What is the purpose of the reduced enamel epithelium (REE)? to protect the tooth until it erupts
What is the function of Hertwig's epithelial rooth sheath? to produce dentin, determine the shape of the dentin and the number of roots formed
What are the rests of Malassez and what do they do? they are remnants of Hertwig's epithelial root sheath and they form the PDL
What are the three forms of mucosa that make up the oral mucous membrane? Masticatory, Nonkeritinized, and Specialized
What is Masticatory mucosa? keratinized mucosa that includes the gingiva and hard palate
What is Nonkeritinized mucosa? mucosa that lines the cheeks, soft palate, and ventral surface of the tongue
What is Specialized mucosa? mucosa that includes the papillae and the dorsal (top) surface of the tongue
what is the function of the oral mucous membrane? to protect the oral structures, secrete moisture to maintain the surface texture, and absorb nutrients
What does the Circulatory system consist of? the heart, blood vessels and blood
What is the membrane that encloses the heart? the pericardial membrane
What is the function of the myocardium and endocardium? to keep the muscle tissue of the heart moist to facilitate movement
What two structures function to facilitate movement of the heart by keeping the tissue moist? the Myocardium and Endocardium
What is the portion of the heart that receives blood from the superior and inferior vena cavae the right atrium
What is the valve through with blood must travel through to get from the right atrium to the right ventricle? the tricuspid valve
where does the blood flow to after it has entered the right ventricle? it flows through the pulmonary valve and artery to the lungs
Where does the oxygenated blood flow to? to the left atriuim which sends it into the left ventrical through the mitral valve
This ventricle pumps arterial blood into the rest of the body through the aortic valve and the aorta. the Left ventricle
The heart is controlled by its own electrical system which consists of? the sinoatrial node (pacemaker) and atrioventricular node
What is the function of the Sinoatrial Node (SA Node)? to control the contraction of the atria and signals the atrioventricular node to tell the ventricles to contract.
What is the normal body temperature? 98.6 degress F
What is the normal blood pressure? 120/80 mmHg
What is the normal glucose concentration? 0.1%
What is the normal pH? 7.4
What is the function of blood? to supply oxygen and nutrients to cells and removes carbon dioxide and wastes. to send WBC's to attack infections and hormones to various organs. it also provides clotting factors when blood vessels break and carries heat away from working muscles
Where are red blood cells (erythrocytes) formed? in bone marrow
What is the function of hemoglobin? to carry oxygen
What do erythrocytes contain? hemoglobin; 4 to 6 million per cubic mm of blood
How many white blood cells (leukocytes) are in blood? 5,000 to 11,000 per cubic mm of blood
Where are leukocytes formed? in bone marrow
what is the function of white blood cells (leukocytes)? to fight infections by surrounding bacteria
What are Lymphocytes? agranular WBC's responsible for immunity
What are platelets? they are the clotting factor; 150,000 to 300,000 per cubic mm of blood
What is plasma? the liquid part of blood which includes hormones, gasses, plasma proteins, salts, and nutrients
What is the function of the respiratory system? to exchange oxygen and carbon dioxide between the air and the blood in the lungs
What is the function of the epiglottis? to prevent food from entering the larynx
What are alveoli? small elastic sacs where air is exchanged
What do the lungs consist of? the bronchial tree, bronchioles, and alveoli and each are surrounded by a pleural sac to facilitate movement
What separates the lungs from the abdominal cavity the diaphragm
What direction does the diaphragm move upon inhalation? it moves downward to improve lung capacity
What direction does the diaphragm move upon exhalation? it moves upward as it relaxes
What is the function of the lymph system? to keep the body free from infections and at a stable temperature
What is the function of the lymphatic capillaries in the GI? to remove fat and transport it to the bloodstream
Where are the lymphatic capillaries located? in the gastrointestinal tract (GI)
What is the function of the lymph nodes? to filter lymph from all parts of the body and destroy infectious agents
What is the function of the spleen? to filter out broken red blood cells
What is the structure that produces hormones during childhood and decreases in size as the body matures? the thymus
What does the thymus produce in adults? T lymphocytes
What is produced by red bone marrow? red and white blood cells
What does the lymphatic system produce in response to injury? histamine
What does histamine cause? swelling, capillary expansion and permeability
What happens if the lymphatic system recognizes a foreign substance (antigen)? it activates B and T cells to produce antibodies to attack the antigen
Define active immunity immunity that lasts a lifetime
Define passive immunity immunity that is short-termed
Define nutrients the substances the body uses for building, maintaining and repairing
What are the six kinds of nutrients? Proteins, Carbohydrates, Fats, Vitamins, Minerals and Water
What are proteins made of? essential and non-essential amino acids that form the building blocks for the body
What are essential amino acids? those that must be obtained from the diet
What are non-essential amino acids? amino acids that can be synthesized by the body if nitrogen is present
What are complete proteins? proteins found in animal products that supply the body with the material necessary for building, repair, and growth
What are incomplete proteins? proteins found in plant products that lack one or more amino acids
What results from deficient amounts of protein? crowded teeth or Kwashiorkor, which causes delayed eruption and hypoplasia
Why is proper protein consumption important? to maintain healthy periodontal tissue and to fight infectious disease of the oral tissues
What are the two types of carbohydrates? simple and complex
What is monosaccharide glucose? the form of carbohydrate most easily converted to energy by the body
What is the carbohydrate most easily converted to energy by the body? Monosaccharide glucose
What is the most nutritionally important carbohydrate? Starch, which is more slowly digested
Where is starch derived from? plants
What is glycogen? animal starch, which is stored in the liver and regulates blood sugar or in muscles, provides energy for muscle contraction
What is Dextran? the sugar used by Streptococcus mutans to produce dental caries
What is the name of the sugar used by Streptococcus mutans to produce dental caries? Dextran
True/False: fibers from plants are digestible FALSE
What is peristalsis? digestion
What does pectin from fruit do? facilitates peristalsis
What is insulin? the protein hormone that increases glucose absorption for energy
where is insulin produced? in the pancreas
What are fats composed of? carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
What are the 3 types of fats? triglycerides, phospholipids, and sterols
What are triglycerides? fats and oils
What are sterols? cholesterol
What is the function of fats? to carry fat-soluble nutrients, aid in absorption, add flavor to foods, and provide a feeling of appetite satisfaction (satiety)
What are saturated fats and where are they found? fat with maximum hydrogen atoms; found in animal fats and tropical oils
What are monosaturated fats? fats with no hydrogen atoms derived from lamb, shortening, and olive and canola oils. They have no effect on serum cholesterol
What are polyunsaturated fats? they reduce serum cholesterol; found in soybean, cottonseed, and vegetable oils
Where does cholesterol come from? animal sources
What are the principle deterrents to elevated serum cholesterol and blocked arteries? reduced fat diets, and exercise
True/False: Vitamins and minerals do not provide energy to the body TRUE
What is the function of vitamins and minerals? they allow the body to use the other nutrients to build, maintain and repair, regulate the release of energy
Where are fat-soluble vitamins stored? in the liver and fatty tissues and can become toxins if they are not used immediately
What is the function of water-soluble vitamins? to aid metabolism and the production and repair of body tissues
What are fat-soluble vitamins? A,D,E,K Vitamins
What are water-soluble vitamins? B,C Vitamins
Which minerals form the basis of bones and teeth and help to regulate cell metabolism? Calcium, Magnesium, and Phosphorous
Which minerals aid in nerve functions? Magnesium, Potassium, and Chloride
What is the function of sodium and chloride? to balance electrolytes
Water makes up this much of the total body weight 50% to 60%
Where does water reside? in and around the cells of the body
Describe the function of cell membranes they are semi-permeable to allow water and other nutrients to flow in and out to maintain a balance between the cells and the bloodstream
What are the functions of water? to transport nutrients to cells and wastes away from cells, lubricate body parts, maintain body temp, and react in chemical functions.
How long can the body survive without water? two to three days
What is caused by Vitamin B deficiency? Beriberi, burning tongue, angular cheilitis
What is caused by Vitamin A deficiency? night blindness
What is caused by Vitamin C deficiency? scurvy
What is caused by Vitamin D deficiency? rickets
Created by: dyoung07