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AP dictionary A-C

Anatomy and Physiology vocabulary A-C

To move away from the midline of the body abduct
localized accumulation of pus adn disintegrating tissue abscess
period following stimulation during which no additional action potential can be evoked absolute refractory period
process by which the products of digestion pass through the alimentary tube mucosa into the blood or lymph absorption
organs that contribute to the digestive process but are not part of the alimenatry canal; include tongue, teeth, salivary glands, pancreas, liver, and gallbladder accessory digestive organs
the process of increasing the refractive power of the lens of teh eye; focusing accommodation
cuplike cavity on lateral surface of hipbone that received the femur acetabulum
chemical transmitter substance released by some nerve cells acetylcholine
proton donor; substance capable of releasing hydrogen ions in solution acid
situation in which the pH of the blood is maintained between 7.35 and 7.45 acid-base balance
state of abnormally high hydrogen ion concentration in the extracellular fluid acidosis
a contractile protein of muscle actin
a large transient depolarization event, including polarity reversal, that is conducted along the membrane of a muscle cell or a nerve fiber action potentialw
energy required to push reactants to the level necessary for interaction activation energy
immunity producted by an1 encounter with an antigen; provides immunologic memory active immunity
membrane transport processes for which ATP is provided; e.g. solute pumping and endocytosis active transport
any change in structure or response to suit a new environment adaptation
decline in the transmission of a sensory nerve when a receptor is stimulated continuously and without change in stimulus strength adaptation
to move toward the midline of the body adduct
anterior pituitary; the glandular part of the pituitary gland adenohypophysis
pharyngeal tonsils adenoids
organic molecule that stores and relases chemical energy for use in body cells ATP
hormone-producing glands located superior to the kidneys; consists of medulla and cortex areas adrenal glands
nerve fibers that release norepinephrine adrenergic fibers
anterior pituitary hormone that influences the activity of the adrenal cortex ACTH (adrenocorticotropic hormone)
outermost layer or covering of an organ adventitia
carrying to or toward a center afferent
nerve cell that carries impulses toward the central nervous system afferent neuron
clumping of (foreign) cells agglutination
induced by cross-linking of antigen-antibody complexes agglutination
the most abundant plasma protein albumin
hormone produced by the adrenal cortex that regulates sodium ion reabsorption aldosterone
continuous hollow tube extending from the mouth to the anus alimenatry canal
oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine construct its walls alimentary canal
state of abnormally low hydroen ion concentration in the extracellular fluid alkalosis
embryonic membrane; its blood vessels develop into blood vessels of the umbilical cord allantois
hypersensitive immune response to an otherwise harmless antigen allergy
one of the microscopic air sacs of the lungs alveolus
organic compound containing nitrogen, carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen; building block fo protein amino acid
a common form of fetal testing in which a small sample of fluid is removed from the amniotic cavity amniocentesis
fetal membrane that forms a fluid-filled sac around the embryo amnion
process by which some cells move through tissue spaces by forming flowing cytoplasmic extensions that help them move along amoeboid movement
a slightly movable joint amphiarthrosis
a localized dilation of a canal or duct ampulla
energy-requiring building phase of metabolism in which simpler substances are combined to form more complex substances anabolism
a type of immediate hypersensitivity that is triggered when allergen molecules crosslink to IgE antibodies attached to mast cells or basophils causing the release of inflammatory substances anaphylaxis
a union or joining of nerves, blood vessels, or lymphatics anastomosis
a hormone that controls male secondary sex characteristics, such as testosterone androgen
reduced oxygen-carrying ability of blood resulting from too few erythrocytes or abnormal hemoglobin anemia
blood-filled sac in an artery wall caused by dilation or weakening of the wall aneurysm
severe surffocating chest pain caused by brief lack of oxygen supply to heart muscle angina pectoris
a potent vasoconstrictor activated by renin; also trigger release of aldosterone angiotensin II
an ion carrying one or more negative chrages and therefore attracted to a positive pole anion
deficiency of oxygen anoxia
muscle that reverses or opposes the action of another muscle antagonist
the front of an orgamism, organ or part (the ventral surface) anterior
adenohypophysis anterior pituitary
a protein molecule that is released by a plasma cell (a daughter cell of an activated B lymphocyte) and that binds specifically to an antigen; an immunoglobulin antibody
hormone produced by the hypothalamus and released by the posterior pituitary; stimulated the kidneys to reabsorb more water ADH (antidiuretic hormone)
a substance or part of a substance (living or nonliving) that is recognized as foreign by the immune system, activated the immune system, and reacts with immune cells or their products antigen
receptor in the aortic arch sensitive to changing oxygen, cargon dioxide, and pH levels of the blood aortic body
the less numerous type of sweat gland; produces a secretion containing water, salts, proteins, and fatty acids apocrine gland
fibrous or membranous sheet connecting a muscle and the part it moves aponeurosis
watery fluid in the anterior chambers of the eye aqueous humor
weblike middle layer of the three meninges arachnoid
tiny, smooth muslces attached to hair follicles; cause the hair to stand upright when activated arrector pili
irregular heart rhythm caused by defects in the intrinsic conduction system arrhythmia
any of a number of proliferative and degenerative changes in the arteris leading to their decreased elasticity arteriosclerosis
double-layered capsule composed of an outer fibrous capsule lined by synovial membrane; encloses the joint cavity of a synovial joint articular capsule
joint; point where two bones meet articulation
a condition in which unequal curvatures in different parts of the lens (or cornea) of the eye lead to blurred vision astigmatism
disruption of muscle coordination resulting in anaccurate movements ataxia
changes in the walls of large arteries consisting of lipid deposits on the artery walls; the early stage of arteriosclerosis atherosclerosis
sum of the number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom atomic mass number
number of protons in an atom atomic number
average of the mass numbers of all of the isotopes of an element atomic weight
a hormone released by certain cells of the heart atria that reduces blood pressure and blood volume by inhibiting nearly all events that promote vasoconstriction and Na+ and water retention atrial natriuretic factor
bundle of specialized fibers that conduct impulses from the AV node to the right and left ventricles; also called bundle of His AV bundle (atrioventricular bundle
specialized mass of conducting cells located at the atrioventricular junction in the heart AV node (atrioventricular node)
reduction in size or wasting away of an organ or cell resulting from disease or lack of use atrophy
the three tiny bones serving as transmitters of vibrations and located within the middle ear; the malleus, incus, and stapes auditory ossicles
tube that connects the middle ear and the pharynx auditory tube (Eustachian tube)
production of antibodies or effector T cells that attack a person's own tissue autoimmune response
efferent division of the peripehral nervous system that innervates cardiac and smooth muscles and glands automic nervous system (involuntary of visceral motor system)
the automatic adjustment of blood flow to a particular body area in respose to its current requirements autoregulation
chromosomes number 1 to 22; do not include the sex chromosomes autosomes
lymphocytes that oversee humoral immunity; their descendants differentiate into antibody producing plasma cells B cells (B lymphocytes)
pressoreceptor; receptor that is stimulated by pressure changes baroreceptor
rate at which energy is expnded (heat produced) by the body per unit time under controlled (basal) conditions: 12 hours after a meal, at rest BMR (basal metabolic rate)
gray mater areas located deep within the white matter of the cerebral hemispheres basal nuclei (basal ganglia)
proton acceptor; substance capable of binding with hydrogen ions base
extracellular material consisting of a basal lamina secreted by epithelial cells and a reticular lamina secreted by underlying connective tissue cells basement membrane
white blood cell whose granules stain deep blue with basic dye; has a relatively pale nucleus basophil
greenish-yellow fluid produced in and secreted by the liver, stored in the gallbladder, and released into the small intestine bile
red pigment of bile bilirubin
class of neurotransmitters, including catecholamines and indolamines biogenic amines
neuron with axon and dendrite that extend from opposite sides of the body bipolar neuron
stage of early embryonic development; the product of cleavage blastocyst
mechanism that inhibits passage of materials from the blood into brain tissues; reflects a relative impermeability of brain capillaries blood-brain barrier
amount of blood flowing through a vessel or organ at a particular time blood flow
force exerted by blood against a unit area of the blood vessel walls; difference in blood pressure between different areas of the circulation provide the driving force for blood circuation blood pressure
process involving bone formation and destruction in response to hormonal and mechanical factors bone remodeling
bones that form the freamework of the thorax; includes sternum ribs and thoracic vertebrae bony thorax
Glomerular capsule bowman's capsule
a heart rate below 50 beats per minute bradycardia
collectively the midbrain, pons, and medulla of the brain brain stem
fluid-filled cavity of the brain brain ventricle
patterns of electirical activity of the neurons of the brain, recordable with an electroencephalograph brain waves
an indention of the surface ectoderm in the embryo; the external auditory canals develop from these branchial groove
one of the two large branches of the trachea that leads to the lungs bronchus
chemical substance or system that minimizes changes in pH by releasing or binding hydrogen ions buffer
a fibrous sac lined with synovial membrane and containing synoval fluid; occurs between bones and muscle tendons (or other structures), where it acts to decrease friction during movement bursa
tendon that attaches the calf muscles to the heelbone (calcaneus) Calcaneal tendon (Achilles tendon)
hormone released by the thyroid that promotes a decrease in calcium levels of the blood calcitonin (thyrocalcitonin)
amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of 1 garm of water 1 degre Celsius calorie
a cuplike extension of the pelvis of the kidney calyx
extremely small tubular passage or channel canaliculus
a malignant invasive cellular neoplasm that has the capability of spreading throughout the body or body parts cancer
proposed mechanism of B cell activation in which multivalent antigens bind to several adjacent receptors on a B lymphocyte and pull them into a continuous cluster capping
enzyme that facilitates the combination of carbon dioxide with water to form carbonic acid carbonic anhydrase
cancer-causing agent carcinogen
sequence of events encompassing one complete contraction and relaxation of the atria and ventricles of the heart cardiac cycle
amount of blood pumpled out of a ventricle in one minute cardiac output
a receptor in the common carotid artery sensitive to changing oxygen, carbon dioxide, and pH levels of the blood carotid body
a dilation of a common carotid artery; involved in regulation of system blood pressure carotid sinus
white semiopaque connective tissue cartilage
epinephrine and norepinephrine catecholamines
the blind-end pouch at the beginning of the large intestine cecum
immunity conferred by activated T cells, which directly lyse infected or cancerous body cells or cells of foreign grafts and release chemicals that regulate the immune response cell-mediated immune response
metabolic processes in which ATP is produced cellular respiration
a fibrous carbohydrate that is the main structural component of plant tissues cellulose
the canal in the center of each osteon that contains minute blood vessels and nerve fibers that serve the needs of the ostocytes Haversian canal (Central canal)
minute body found near the nucleus of the cell; active in cell division Centriole
a region near the nucleus which contains paired organelles called centrioles centrosome (cell center)
brain region most involved in producing smooth, coordinated skeletal muscle activity cerebellum
the slender cavity of the midbrain that connects the third and fourth ventricles Aqueduct of Sylvius (cerebral aqueduct)
the outer gray matter region of the cerebral hemispheres cerebral cortex
designates the hemisphere that is dominant for language cerebral dominance
plasmalike fluid that fills the cavities of the CNS and surrounds the CNS externally cerebrospinal fluid
the cerebral hemispheres and the structures of the diencephalon cerebrum
an energy relationship holding atoms together; involves the interaction of the electrons chemical bond
energy stored in the bonds of chemicals chemical energy
process in which molecules are formed, changed, or broken down chemical reaction
receptors sensitive to various chemicals in solution chemoreceptor
movement of a cell, organism, or part of an organism toward or away from a chemical substance chemotaxis
an intestinal hormone that stimulates gallbladder contraction and pancreatic juice release Cholecystokinin (CKK)
steroid found in animal fats as well as in most body tissues, made by the liver cholesterol
nerve endings that upon stimulation, release acetylcholine cholinergic fibers
actively mitotic cell form of cartilage chondroblast
mature cell form of cartilage chondrocyte
outermost fetal membrane; helps form the placenta chorion
fetal testing procedure in which bits of the chorionic villi from the placenta are snipped off and the cells karyotyped. This procedure can be done as early as 8 weeks into the pregnancy chorionic villi sampling
the vascular middle tunic of the eye choroid
a capillary knot that protrudes into a brain ventricle; involved in forming cerebrospinal fluid choroid plexus
structures in the nucleus that carry the hereditary factos (genes) chromatin
barlike bodies of tightly coiled chromatin; visible during cell division chromosomes
semifluid, creamy mass consisting of partially digested food and gastric juice chyme
tiny, hairlike projections of cell surfaces that move in a wavelike manner cilia
an arterial anastomosis at the base of the brain Circle of Willis
movement of a body part so that it outlines a cone in space circumduction
an enlarged sac at the base of the thoracic duct; the origin of the thoracic duct Cisterna chyli
an early embryonic phase consisting of rapid mitotic cell divisions without intervening growth periods; product is a blastocyst cleavage
process during which a B cell or T cell becomes sensitized through binding contact with an antigen clonal selection
descendants of a single cell clone
snail-shaped chamber of the bony labyrinth that houses the receptor for hearing Cochlea (the organ of Corti)
Ventral body cavity Coelom
nonprotein substance associated with and activating an enzyme, typically a vitamin coenzyme
metal ion or organic molecule that is required for enzyme activity cofactor
the most abundant of the three fibers found in the matrix of connective tissue; contructed primarily of the fibrous protein collagen collagen fibers
a mixture in which the solute particles do not settle out readily and do not pass through natural membranes colloid
pressure created in a fluid by large nondiffusible molecules, such as plasma proteins that are prevented from moving through a (capillary) membrane. Such substances tend to draw water to them colloidal osmotic pressure
a group of blood-borne proteins, which, when activated enhance the inflammatory and immune responses and may lead to cell lysis complement
clinical test that includes a hematocrit, counts of all formed elements and clotting factors, and other indicators of normal blood function CBC (complete blood count)
substance composed of two or more different elements, the atoms of which are chemically united compound
ability to transmit an electrical impulse conductivity
one of the two types of photoreceptor cells in the retina of the eye; provide for color vision cones
existing at birth congenital
condition in which the pumping efficiency of the heart is depressed so that circulation is inadequate to meet tissue needs congestive heart failure
thin, protective mucous membrane lining the eyelids and covering the anterior surface of the eye itself conjunctiva
a primary tissue; form and function vary extensively; functions include: support, storage, and protection connective tissue
opposite; acting in unison with a similar part on the opposite side of the body contralateral
brain injury in which marked tissue destruction results. Severe brain stem contusions always result in unconsciousness contusion
turning toward a common point from different directions convergence
arrangement of elongated follicle cells around a mature ovum corona radiata
crownlike arrangement of nerve fibers radiating from the internal capsule of the brain to every part of the cerebral cortex corona radiata
outer surface layer of an organ cortex
steroid hormones released by the adrenal cortex corticosteroids
glucocorticoid produced by the adrenal cortex cortisol
chemical bond created by electron sharing between atoms covalent bond
the 12 nerve pairs that arise from the brain cranial nerves
compound that serves as an alternative energy source for muscle tissue creatine phosphate
a nitrogenous waste molecule which is not reabsorbed by the kidney; this characteristic makes it useful for measurement of the GFR and glomerular function creatinine
sensory receptor organ within the ampulla of each semicircular canal of the inner ear; dynamic equilibrium receptor crista ampullaris
important intracellular second messenger that mediates hormonal effects; formed from ATP by the action of adenylate cyclase, an enzyme associated with the plasma membrane cyclic AMP
brightly colored iron-containing proteins that form part of the inner mitochondrial membrane and function as electron carriers in oxidative physphorylation cytochromes
division of cytoplasm that occurs after the cell nucleus has divided cytokinesis
the cellular material surrounding the nucleus and enclosed by the plasma membrane cytoplasm
effector T cell that directly kills (lyses) foreign cells, cancer cells, or virus-infected body cells Cytotoxic T cell (killer T cell)
Created by: Lorri