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Chap9 Joints

Joints

QuestionAnswer
structural class. is based on the presense or absense of a ____ joint cavity and type of _____ tissue synovial joint cavity; connecting tissue
structurally, joints are classified as fibrous, carilagious or synovial
functional class. is based upon movement
immovable synarthosis
slightly movable amphiarthrosis
freely movable diarthosis
fibrous joints lack a synovial cavity
in fibrous joints bones are held closely together by fibrous connective tissue
Fibrous joints functional wise are? little to no movement (syn or ampiarthosis)
Fibrous has 3 structural types -sutures (brain)- syndesmosis -gomphoses (jaw)
thin layer of dense fibrous connective tissue unites bones of the skull sutures
sutures are immovable (syn)
Fibrous joint; bones united by ligament sydesmosis
syndesmosis functional? slightly movable (amphiarthrosis)
example of syndesmosis anterior tibiofubular joint; interosseous membrane
ligament holds cone shaped peg in bony socket gomphosis
gomposis functional slightly (amphi)
Carilaginous joints lack synovial cavity
cartilaginous joints allow little or no movement
bones in cartiglinous joints are tightly connected by fibrocartilage or hyaline
synchondrosis (connecting material is hyaline)functional and exp. where found? immovable (syn); epiphyseal plate or joints between ribs and sternum
Symphysis (cart) what is connecting material fibrocartilage
functional of symphysis slightly movable (ampi)
ex. of symphysis interveterbral disc and public symphysis
synovial joints sep. atriculating bones
synovial joints are freely (diarthosis)
in synovial joints, articular cartilage reduces _____ and absorbs ______ friction and absorbs
in synovial joints, articular capsule surrounds ____ joint
in synovial joints the synovial membrane is the what inner lining of capsule
surrounds a diarthosis, encloses the synovial cavity, and unites the articulating bones articular capsule
articular capsule is composed to two layers- the outer firbous capsule which may contain what liagaments
the inner synovial membrane secretes a lubricating and joint- noursihing synovial fluid
the ____ of the fibrous capsule permits considerable movement at a joint, whereas its great ____ strength helps prevent bones from dislocating flexablility; tensile
brings nuturents to articular cartilage synovial mem.
extracapsular ligaments/ outside joint capsuleintracapsular ligaments/ wihin capsule accessory ligaments
attached around edges to capsule articular discs or menisci
menisci allows 2 bones of different shape to fit tightly
increase stablility of knee- torn cartilage articular dics or menisci
saclike structures between structures (skin/bone) (tendon/ bone) (lig/bone) bursae
fluid filled saclike extensions of the joint capsule bursae
reduce friction between moving structures(skin moves over bone) (tendons rub over bone) bursae
tubelike bursae that wrap around tendons at wrise and ankle where many tendons come together in a confined space tendon sheaths
chronic inflmamation of a bursa bursitis
___movements occur when a relatively flat bone surfaces move back and forth and from side to side with respect to one another gliding
gliding movements occur at plantar joints
there is an increase or decrase in the angle between articulating bones angular movements
results in decrease in the angle between artciulating bones flexion
results in increase in the angle between artciulating bones extension
contiunation of extension beyong the anatomical position and is usually prevented by the arrangement of ligaments and the anatomical alignment of bones hyperexension
occurs at ball n socket, condyloid, saddle joints circumduction
permit mainly side to side and back and forth gliding movements; nonaxial planar
in planar joitns bones are usually are flat or slightly curved
planar is side to side movement only. name an example. intercarpal or intertarsal joints; sternovlavicular joints
contains the convex surface of one bone fitting into a concave surface of another bone. movement is primarily flexion or extension in a single plane hinge joint
exp of hinge knee, elbow, ankle
opening the joint beyond the anatomical position hyperextension
a round or point surface of one bone fits into a ring formed by another bone and a ligament. pivot joint
in pivot joint movement is both rotational and monaxial
pivot joint is monoaxial since it allows only rotation around longitudial axis
exp of pivot joint proximal radioular joint; atlanto- axial joint
oval shaped condyle of one bone fits into and elliptical cavity of another bone. condyloid joint
movements of condyloid joint are flexion extension, ab and add and circumduction
ex of condyloid joint metacarpophalangeal joint (first knuckle
condyloid joint is bixal which means flex/ extend or abduct or adduct is possible
example of condyloid carpal- metacarpal joint
in saddle joint the _____ allows tip of thumb travel in circle circumduction
exmp. of saddle joint trapezium of carpus and metacarpal of thumb
the ball shaped surface of one bone fits into cuplike depression of another. ball and socket
movemtns of ball and socket include flexion-extens. ab/ adduct rotation and ciurcumduction
ball and socket is multiaxal (flexion/extension)(ab/add) (rotation)
only two ball and socket shoulder/hip
is a combineded hinge and planar joint formed by the condylar process of the mandible and the mandibular fossa Temporomandibular joint (TMJ)
movements of TMJ includes opening/close; prot/retraction/ excursion of the jaw
when TMJ is dislocated, what remains open mouth
TMJ has what kind of joint synovial/ gliding and hinge
rotator cuff injury and dislocation or separated shoulder are common injuries to what joint shoulder
articular capsule on shoulder joint extends from glenoid cavity to anatomical neck
in shoulder joint what deepens socket glenoid labrum
what holds biceps tendon in place transverse humeral ligament
attach humerus to scapular and encircle the joint supporting the capsule rotator cuff muscles= SITS
holds head of humerus in socket rotator cuff muscle
____ ___ ____ hols head of radius in place radial annular lig.
collateral ligaments maintain (in artciular capsule of elbow) integrity of joint
acetabular labrum is where? lip on edge, seats head of femur
what consists of 3 joints within a single synovial cavity knee joint
menisci has what type of cartilage? and what does it do fibro; helps condyles line up and shock absorber
torn cartilage refers to menisci
torn lig refers to TCL
rupture of TCL often accompanies, tear of _____ and ____ ACL and medial meniscus
____ is gliding joint between patella and femur gliding
___,____ and ____ of tibia on femur when knee is flexed flexion, extens, slight rotation
Created by: Mollie28