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Bones Anatomy

Overview

NamesDefinitions
Atom Invisible particle thzt combines other atoms to compose a molecule.
Molecule Invisible particle that combines with other molecules to combine a cell.
Cell Microscopic unit composed of molecules in structural and dissolved forms, combines with other cells to compose tissues.
Tissue microscopic unit composed of cells that perform a common function; combines with ither tissues to form an organ.
Dorsal Cavity Back portion of the body, smaller of the two major cavities.
Cranial Cavity Houses the brain, surrounded by the skull
Spinal Cavity Houses the spinal cord, surrounded by sections of the vertebrae
Ventral Cavity Located at the front of the body, larger of the two cavities.
Thoracic Cavity Encloses the lungs and a region between the lungs called the mediastinum.
Abdominal Cavity Has three suddivisions, the upper and lower abdominal regions, and the pelvic region.
Oral Cavity Contains teeth and tongue
Nasal Cavity Within the nose
Orbital Cavities Contain the eye and associated nerves and muscles.
Middle Ear Cavities Contain middle ear bones.
Body Sections (blank)
Saggital Section Lengthwise cut that divides the body into left and right sections.
Transverse Section Crosscut dividing the body into upper and lower parts.
Frontal Section Lenghtwise cut that divides the body into front and back sections.
Body Systems (blank)
Integumentary System Skin and accessory organs of hair, nails, and various glands: functions to protect underlying tissues; helps regulate temperature.
Skeletal System Bones, ligaments, cartilages; functions to protect tissues; permits muscle attachment, synthesizes blood components.
Muscular System muscles; functions to permit muscle movement.
Nervous System Brain, spinal cord and nerves;
Body Systems (blank)
Integumentary system skin and accessory organs of hair,nails, and various glands; function is to protect underlying tissues, helps regulate temperature.
Skeletal system bones, ligaments, catilages; functions is to protect tissues, permits muscle attachment, synthesizes blood components.
Muscular system muscles; function is to permit movement.
Nervous system brain, spinal cord, and nerves; function is to communicate and coordinate.
Endocrine system hormone secreting glands; functions is to communicate coordinate.
Digestive system mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, intestines, liver, and others; functions is to receive foods and convert them to useable forms.
Respiratory system nasal cavity, trachea, lungs, and others; function is in gas exchange.
Circulatory system heart, arteries, veins, blood; functions in transport of gasas, foods, hormones, waste, and other materials.
Lymphatic system lymph nodes, lymphatic vessels, lymph, and others; function in food transport and body defense against disease.
Urinary system kidneys, ureters, bladder, and others; functions in waste removal and fluid electrolyte balance.
Reproductive system male and female reproductive organs; functions in the production of the next generation.
Cell Structure (blank)
Cell structure the cell consists of a mass of cytoplasm surrounded by a cell membrane; the cytoplasm contains a fluid called the cytosol and a number of microscopic structures called organelles.
Membranous Organelles: (blank)
Nucleus large chromosome-containing organelle where the genes reside and where the genetic information for protein synthesis is found; surrounded by a two-layer nuclear membrane; composed of DNA and histone protein.
Mitochondrion sausage-shaped organelle where the chemical reactions of energy metabolism takes place.
Endoplasmic reticulum (E R) a network of intracellular membranes where proteins are synthesized; rough ER has ribosomes, smooth ER has no ribosomes.
Golgi complex a series of saclike membranes where the body secretions are packaged and stored.
Lysosomes vesicles filled with digestive enzymes.
Peroxisomes vesicles filled with various enzymes.
Nonmembranous Organelles: (blank)
Cytoskeleton the scaffold-like framework of the cell; composed of threadlike microfilaments; microtubules, and thick and thin filaments.
Centrioles dotlike bodies that direct the movement of DNA during cell division; contained in the structure called centrosome.
Cilia short hair-like structures that wave about and create currents to move fluids past a cell.
Flagella long, hairlike structures that move a cell through a fluid.
Ribosomes dotlike ultramicroscopic bodies where ammino acids are assembled to form proteins during protein synthesis.
Cell membrane a double layer of phospholipids in which protein globules float; conforms to the fluid mosiac model.
Molecular Movement: (blank)
Diffusion the movement of molecules from a region of high concentration to a region of low concentration; usually takes place with small, inorganic ions and lipid-soluble materials.
Facilitated-diffusion the movement of molecules from a region of high concentration to a region of low concentration assisted by carrier molecules; takes place with gluclose and ammino acids during flow accross the cell membrane.
Osmosis the diffusion of water molecules accross a semipermiable membrane from a region of high concentration to a region of low concentration; occurs only with water.
Active transport the movement of molecules accross a cell membrane assisted by carrier molecules and dependent upon the expenditure of energy; works regardless of any concentration gradient; operates for sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, and other ions.
Filtration the movement of water accross a cell membrane by hydrostatic pressure; usually involves a solute dissolved in the water; requires membrane, operates with water and small ions.
Endocytosis the movement of molecules accross a membrane by the creation of vesicles containing fluid or solid material; movements of fluids are called pinocytosis; movements of solids are called phagocytosis, requires expenditure of energy.
Cellular Attachments: (blank)
Gap junction one in which two cells are held together by interlocking membrane proteins; occurs in cardiac muscle and smooth muscle tissues.
Tight junction one in which there is a partial fusion of the lipoproteins of two cell membranes; the strongest intracellular connections; occurs near the exposed surfaces of cells lining the digestive tract.
Desmosome a junction where a very thin proteoglycan layer exists between the opposing cell membranes and is reinforced by a network of intermediate filaments that lock the two cells together; very strong junction that resists stretching and twisting; exists between
Created by: ron snyder