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A and P Bone Terms

A and P Bone Terms for Final

What is the function of muscle? Contraction
What are the effects of exercise on muscle? 1 - Increased blood supply; 2 - Muscle gets thicker
What happpens to muscle when it contracts? IHt shortens and thickens
What are the three types of contraction? 1 - Isotonic; 2 - Isometric; 3 - Tonic
Define isotonic - Contraction of movement
Define isometric - Contraction without movement (Yoga)
Define Tonic - Muscle tone
What is the orgin / insertion? 1 - Origin is where muscle attaches to immovable bone; 2 - Insertion is where muscle attaches to movable bone
NOTE: Muscle is always proximal to area it is moving
What is ischemia of the leg muscles causing pain called? Claudication (Limping due to ischemia of the leg muscles)
Define ischemia - local deficiency of blood supply produced by vasoconstriction or local obstacles to the arterial flow.
What is the term for shrinking of muscle? Atrophy
What are the symptoms of muscular dystrophy? (also called Duschene's or MD) 1 - Child has waddling gait; 2 - Enlarged caves; 3 - Winged shoulders
Define sprain - Over stratching of the muscle with damage to soft tissue
Define strain - Over stratching of the muscle
What is a bursa? Sac filled with jelly like fluid
What is the function of bursa? Cushioning
What is gout? Problem with protein metabolism causes accumulation of uric acid crystals
Who acquires most often and where? Great toe of men over 40
What is the function of synovial fluid? Lubrication
Where is synovial fluid found? Synovial joints
What is a dislocation? Union of two or more bones are no longer united
What disorder does prolonged wear and tear on joints cause? Arthritis
What is the name of a crippling form of arthritis that affects children? Rheumatiod arthritis (Is a autoimmune disease)
Define articulation - Area of union of 2 or more bones (Joint)
What is the function os the the skeletal system? 1 - Support; 2 - Framework; 3 - Protection of organs; 4 - Storage; 5 - Levers; 6 - Hematopoiesis
Define Lordosis - Exaggerated lumbar curve (Abnormal spinal curvatures)
Define kyphosis - Exaggerated thoracic curve (Abnormal spinal curvatures)
Define scoliosis - Exaggerated 'S' shape of spine (Abnormal spinal curvatures)
Define synarthroses - Joints that do not move (EX: Skull)
Define Diarthrosis - A joint that moves freely (EX: ball & socket)
Define Amphiarthroses - A joint that moves slightly ((Ex: Pubic symphysis of the pelvic girdle)
What are ligaments and tendons? Dense fibrous connective tissue characterized by closely packed parallel bundles of collagenous fibers
NOTE: Tissue that forms tendons and legaments have a poor blood supply and few cells which leads to slow healing of this tissue
What do ligaments do? Connect bone to bone
What do tendons do? Connect muscle to bone
What are the majior differences between a male and female skeleton? Males are heavier which is caused by testoserone; Female - The pelvic girdle is wider and move during child birth
What are the word parts for bone? 1 - Oste / o; 2 - Orth / o
Define epiphysis - Spongy ends of long bones (All blood cells are produced here
Define hematopoiesis - Formation of blood
What is the diaphysis? Shaft of the bone
Define periosteum - Very thick outer covering of bone (Must be healthy for bone to heal)
Define endosteum - Thin inner connective tissue membrane that covers medullary cavity
What is the function of the red bone marrow? Formation of all red blood cells
What is the composition of yellow marrow? Fat
What is the function of yellow marrow? Cushion, heat and warmth
How does bone change from early to later life? Bones are much more flexible early on; They do break, more often because there thinner but heal quicker due to greater osteblast activity; - They become more brittle the older we get
What is rickets? Vitamin 'D' deficiency
Define osteomyelitis - an inflammation of the bone and bone marrow, usually caused by bacterial infection
What is a complication of osteomyelitis? Open compound fracture
Define olecranon process - Ulna protrudes (Elbow)
Define acromion process - Where scapula prodtrudes (Shouder blade)
Define mastoid process - Protrudtion behind ear
Define lateral malleolus - Protrusion of fibula (Ankle bone)
What are prime movers? Muscles performing action (Contracting)
Define antagonists - Muscles that are relaxing
What is the only movable bone in the skull? Mandible (Jaw bone)
Define epiphyseal - Growth plate in long bones (Becomes epiphyseal when person is done growing)
Define osteoporosis - Lose in height (Person developes Dowager's hump)
Define Extention in reference to body movements - To straighten - (Increase angle between two bones) EX: to straighten elbow
Define Flexion in reference to body movements - To bend - (To bring two bones closer & decrease angle) EX: bending elbow
Define Hyperextention in reference to body movements - Occurs when a part of the body is extended beyond the anatomical postion - (Joint angle becomes greater than 180 degrees) EX: Moving the head backwards
Define Dorsiflexion in reference to body movements - Flexion of the ankle in which the dorsum (top of foot) is lifted upward
Define Planter Flexion in reference to body movements - Pushing out your foot (Increasing angle between the foot and leg) EX: Standing on your toes
Define Abduction in reference to body movements - To take away (Moves a bone or limb away from the midline or axis of the body) EX: Move arm away from body; or to spread fingers
Define Adduction in reference to body movements - To bring together - (Moves a bone or limb towards the midline or axis of the body) EX: to move arm closer to body; or to move fingers together
Define Rotation in reference to body movements - Movement of a bone round its own axis - EX: Shaking your head no
Define Supination in reference to body movements - Specialized rotation of the wrist or forearm that turns the palm forward or anteriorly
Define Pronation in reference to body movements - Opposite of supination - turns hand down or posteriorly
Define Circumduction in reference to body movements - Circular movement of a body segment (Pitcher rotating shoulder in a circle)
Define Inversion in reference to body movements - Movement of the sole of the foot inward (Turning bottom of foot inward)
Define Eversion in reference to body movements - Movement of the sole of the foot outward (Turning bottom of foot outward or lateraly)
Define complete fracture - Bone breaks all the way across
Define incomplete fracture - Bone breaks, but not all the way through
Define open fracture - A fractured bone that brakes through the skin
Define closed - Bone breaks but does not break skin
Define spiral fracture - Bone breaks from a twisting action
Define transverse - Break is staight
Define comminuted fracture - Bone is smashed
Define displaced - A break that requires surgery to set
Define Green stick - Bone bends instead of breaking; common in babies
What are some examples of long bones? Arms - Legs - radius - ulna - tibla - Fibula
What are some examples of short bones? Hands - Feet - Wrist - Ankle
What are some examples of flat bones? Pelvic girdle - skull - Sternum - Ribs - Scapula
What are some examples of irregular bones? Vertabrae
Created by: amandmc