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A & P MS2 MOD 3

Muscle System

Muscular System all of the muscles of the body considered as an interrelated structural group
Functions of the muscular system Assists in body movements; assists in the movement of materials to the body; produces heat and energy; assists in maintaining posture and balance; helps to protect the internal organs
Skeletal muscle tissue voluntary;striated,consisting of long,slender,striped cells;attached to the skeleton moves the skeleton’s moving parts,acting in opposing groups with some muscles relaxing and some contracting;contracts quickly in response to stimulation of nerve impulses
Voluntary functioning under the conscious control of the organism
Involuntary functioning without the conscious control of the organism
Striated consisting of narrow bands or rows
Visceral muscle tissue is voluntary; is non striated, consisting of spindle shaped cells; is found in the viscera, especially the stomach, intestines, urinary ducts, and blood vessels; contracts slowly in response to stimulation to nerve impulses
Viscera the internal organs in the abdominal cavity
Cardiac muscle tissue Is involuntary; is partially striated; found only in the heart; contracts moderately fast in response to stimulation to nerve impulses
Origin the less movable end of a skeletal muscle attachment that is closer to the midline of the trunk of the body and is attached to the less movable end of the bone
Insertion the end of a skeletal muscle attachment that is attached to the more movable bone
Body the largest or the main part of a skeletal muscle
Skeletal muscles are enclosed in the epimysium, which is continuous with the fibrous structures that attach the muscles to bones and other structures
Epimysium a fibrous sheath that enfolds a skeletal muscle and extends over the origin and insertion and between bundles of muscle fibers
Skeletal muscles are firmly attached to the structures on which they pull during contraction
Skeletal muscles may be attached directly to the periostium of a bone or may be attached by tendons or aponeuroses
Periostium a fibrous, vascular membrane covering the bones, except at their extremities
Tendon a structure in which the epimysium extends from the muscles as a broad, flat sheet of connective tissue that attaches to an adjacent structure; one of many white, glistening fibrous bands of tissue that attach muscle to bone
Aponeurosis –structure which the epimysium extends from the muscle a strong,tough cord of connective tissue is continuous with the periostium of the bone;strong sheet of fibrous connective tissue serves as a tendon 2 attach muscles 2 bone or fascia 2 bind muscle
Muscles contract in response to electrical impulses, either the natural stimulus of a motor nerve Impulse or an artificial stimulus such as electrical shock
Muscles that move a body part usually lie proximal to the part that they move
Locomotion of the body is caused by muscles pulling on bones
Body movements result from coordinated actions in pairs of muscles
The coordinated actions of a pair of muscles generally mean that one muscle contracts while the other relaxes
Normal movements of body parts are the result of the coordinated motion of several pairs of muscles
The energy to produce movement in muscles is released from simple sugars through metabolism
Irritability the ability to respond to stimuli
Conductivity the ability to transmit impulses
Extensibility the ability to stretch and remain stretched
Elasticity the ability to return to a former length when the stretching force is removed
Contractility the ability to contract or shorten
Tone the slight tension that is present in muscles even when they are at rest so that they can respond more easily and quickly when needed
Abductor performs abduction, moving away from a part or midline
Adductor performs adduction, moving toward a part or toward a midline
Levator performs elevation, lifting a part
Depressor performs depression, lowering a part
Flexor performs flexion, bending a part at a joint
Extensor performs extension, straightening a part at a joint
Rotator performs medial rotation, revolving a part on its axis, or lateral
Protractor performs protraction, moving a part forward
Retractor performs retraction, moving a part back
Invertor performs inversion, turning a part upside down or inside out
Evertor – performs eversion, turning or rotating a part outward
Supinator – performs supination, turning a part upward
Pronator – performs pronation, turning a part downward
Sphincter – performs constriction, closing a body opening
Tensor – performs tension, making a part more rigid
Prime mover – a muscle that generates the majority of force to accomplish a movement
Agonist – a muscle or group of muscles that create a specific movement by flexing
Antagonist – a muscle or group of muscles that when flexed directly oppose prime mover muscles
Synergist – a muscle or group of muscles that assist in the movement produced by prime mover muscles
Fixator – a muscle or group of muscles that stabilize a joint, helping to maintain posture and balance during the action of prime mover muscles
Head and face muscles – control talking, chewing, swallowing, facial expressions, and blinking
Neck muscles – move the head from side to side, from back to front, and in rotation
Back muscles – allow the body to bend, turn, and stand erect
Chest muscles – assist in respiration and movements of the neck, arms, and trunk
Abdominal muscles – support the internal organs, assist in respiration, and assist in eliminating waste from the large intestines and bladder
Perineal muscles – assist in defecation and urination and form the floor of the pelvic cavity
Frontalis – wrinkles the forehead horizontally
Temporalis – closes the mandible
Orbicularis oculi – closes the eyelids
Orbicularis oris – draws the lips together as in kissing
Buccinator – moves the lips for blowing, wistling, and smiling
Masseter – closes the jaws as in chewing
Trapezius – moves the shoulders by raising, assists in moving the head to one side or the other, hyperextends the head when the occiput acts as insertion, and helps hold the head erect
Sternocleidomastoid – rotates the head from side to side, flexes the upper vertebral column and head as in bowing the head, and helps hold the head erect
Platysma – acts to wrinkle the skin in the neck and depresses the mandible
Hyperextend – to extend to its fullest range of motion or beyond
Occiput – the back of the head
Clavicle – the collarbone
Scapula – the shoulder bone
Sternum – the breast bone
Mastoid process – the process of the temporal bone behind the ear
Mandible – the lower jaw bone
Deltoid – moves the upper arm at the point of the shoulder
Pectoralis major – flexes the upper arm, adducts the upper arm anteriorly, and draws the arm across the chest
Serratus anterior – rotates the scapula and raises the shoulder, as in full flexion and abduction of the arm
Intercostals – elevate and depress the ribs
Latissimus dorsi – brings the arms down forcefully
Diaphragm – conracts and relaxes to cause inhalation and exhalation
External oblique – compresses the abdomen and rotates the trunk laterally
Internal oblique – compresses the abdomen and rotates the trunk laterally
Transverse abdominis – compresses the abdomen and rotates the trunk laterally
Rectus abdominus – compresses the abdomen and rotates the trunk laterally and flexes the trunk laterally
Levator ani – forms the floor of the pelvic cavity and supports the organs
Deep transverse perinei – forms the floor of the pelvic cavity
Biceps brachii – flexes the supinated forearm
Triceps brachii – extends the lower arm
Brachialis – flexes the pronated forearm
Brachioradialis – flexes the forearm
Carpi muscles – control hand movements
Digitorum muscles – control finger movements
Pollicis muscles – control thumb movements
Gluteas maximus – helps maintain an erect posture and extends and rotates the thigh
Gluteas medius – abducts the thigh, rotates the thigh outward, and stabilizes the pelvis on the femur
Gluteas minimus – abducts the thigh, rotates the thigh outward, stabilizes the pelvis on the femur, and extends the thigh
Sartorious – adducts and flexes the leg
Quadricepts fomoris – extends the leg
Adductor – presses the thigh together
Hamstring – flexes the lower leg
Gastrocnemius – extends the foot
Tibialis anterior – flexes the foot and inverts the ankle
Peroneus longus – everts the ankle
Soleus – inverts the ankle
Flexor digitorum – flexes the toes
Extensor digitorum – extends the toes
Tenosynovitis – an inflammation of the tendon sheath often caused by repetitive motion
Atrophy – a condition of weakness in a muscle due to lack of use
Cramps – painful, involuntary twitches of a muscle
Convulsions – abnormal, uncoordinated contractions of muscles
Fibrillation – an asynchronous contraction of individual tissue fibers with in a muscle
Asynchronous contraction – the flexing of the muscles at unexpected or undesired times
Strain – a condition in which the muscle fibers have been overstretched or torn
Myositis – an inflammation of muscle tissue
Fibromyosis – an inflammation of a tendon
Contusion – localized internal bleeding within a muscle
Myalgia – muscle pain
Muscular dystrophy – a group of genetic diseases that lead to atrophy
Myasthenia gravis – an autoimmune disease in which the immune system attacks muscle cells at the neuromuscular junction
Hernia – a protrusion of an abdominal organ, such as the small intestine, due to weakness in the abdominal muscles
Tetanus – the inability of the muscles to relax due to the presence of a toxin
Botulism – an infection by an organism that releases a toxin that prevents muscle contraction
Created by: llc1980



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