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Medical Terminology Final Review Definitions

the presence of bacteria in a sample of blood. Bacteremia
an abnormally reduced number of red blood cells in a sample of blood Erythropenia
rupture of the red blood cell membrane. Hemolysis
an abnormally reduced number of white blood cells in a sample of blood Leukopenia
an abnormal increase in the number of red blood cells in the blood Polycythemia
another term for polycythemia Erythrocytosis
another name for thrombopenia Thrombocytopenia
lack of available iron to bind to hemoglobin causes: Iron-deficiency anemia
anemia caused by defective hemoglobin within cells, resulting in misshapen (sickled) red blood cells that can cause obstructions in blood vessels. Sickle cell anemia
a form of poisoning caused by the ingestion of food contaminated with the toxin produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum Botulism
leakage of fluid from the bloodstream into the interstitial space between body cells; also called swelling Edema
a mass of blood outside of the blood vessels and confined within an organ or space within the body Hematoma
a condition that is caused by a medical treatment Iatrogenic disease
a disease that develops without a known or apparent cause. Idiopathic disease
a form of cancer that originates from cells within the blood-forming tissue of the red marrow Leukemia
communicable viral disease, caused by the Epstein-Barr virus; characterized by enlarged lymph nodes and spleen, atypical lymphocytes, throat pain, pharyngitis, fever, and fatigue Mononucleosis
a systemwide disease caused by the presence of bacteria and their toxins in the circulating blood Septicemia
another term for septicemia Sepsis
a neurotoxic disease that causes severe pain, convulsions, and paralysis Tetanus
the stoppage of bleeding Hemostasis
surgical removal of the spleen Splenectomy
treatment that is performed to dissolve an unwanted blood clot Thrombolysis
another name for a blood clot Thrombus
the inoculation of a culture that has reduced ability to cause infection, as a means of providing a cure or prophylaxis Vaccination
the primary symptom of an insufficient supply of oxygen to the heart causing chest pain Angina pectoris
pounding, racing, or skipping of the heartbeat Palpitation
an abnormal bulging of an arterial wall Aneurysm
the long-term result of aortic insufficiency or MI Congestive heart failure
a condition that develops when an artery wall becomes thickened and loses its elasticity, resulting in reduced flow of blood to tissues Arteriosclerosis
a specific form of arteriosclerosis in which one or more fatty plaques form along the inner walls of arteries Atherosclerosis
enlargement of the heart Cardiomegaly
acute compression of the heart due to the accumulation of fluid within the pericardial cavity Cardiac tamponade
a gurgling sound detected during auscultation, due to valvular insufficiency murmur
a general term for a disease that afflicts the coronary arteries supplying the heart Coronary artery disease
a blood clot or foreign particle (including air or fat) that moves through the circulation Embolism
inflammation of the endocardium. Endocarditis
persistently high blood pressure Hypertension
high blood pressure that is not related to a single cause Essential hypertension
swollen, or varicose, veins in the anal region Hemorrhoids
high blood pressure caused by the effects of another disease Secondary hypertension
death of a portion of the myocardium; also known as a heart attack Myocardial infarction
inflammation of the myocardium of the heart Myocarditis
inflammation of the pericardium of the heart Pericarditis
inflammation of a vein Phlebitis
a diagnostic procedure that includes x-ray photography of a blood vessel after injection of a contrast medium Angiography
the surgical repair of a blood vessel Angioplasty
a procedure that obtains an x-ray image of an artery Arteriography
an examination technique that involves listening to internal heart, lung, and circulatory sounds using a stethoscope Auscultation
insertion of a narrow flexible tube through a coronary vessel into the heart Cardiac catheterization
a battery-powered device that is implanted under the skin and wired to the sinoatrial (SA) node in the heart Cardiac pacemaker
a procedure in which an electric charge is applied to the chest wall in order to stop the heart conduction system momentarily, then restart it with a more normal heart rhythm Defibrillation
a procedure that directs sound waves through the heart to evaluate heart function Echocardiography
a portable device (electrocardiograph) worn by the patient to monitor electrical activity of the heart over 24-hour periods of time Holter monitor
incision into a vein, usually to remove blood for sampling or donation Phlebotomy
a device used to measure blood pressure, consisting of an arm cuff and air pressure pump with a mercury pressure gauge Sphygmomanometer
joint pain Arthralgia
reduced muscle size Atrophy
abnormally slow movement Bradykinesia
muscle pain Myalgia
sign of abnormal muscle growth Hypertrophy
inflammation and degeneration of a joint Arthritis
an autoimmune disease in which joint structures become eroded by the action of the body’s own white blood cells Rheumatoid arthritis
a common condition of aging in which joint structures become worn and gradually replaced by bone Osteoarthritis
a condition characterized by inflammation of the wrist that causes pressure against the median nerve, resulting in local pain and restricted movement Carpal tunnel syndrome
a disorder caused by an abnormal accumulation of uric acid crystals in the joints, causing sharp pain in the joints of the toes, especially the big toe Gout
abnormal loss of bone density, resulting in a loss of posture and flexibility Osteoporosis
a disorder in which the bones become softened due to the excessive removal of calcium for other body functions Rickets
a procedure in which excess fluids are aspirated by suction through a surgical puncture into the synovial cavity of the joint Arthrocentesis
surgical removal of an intervertebral disk Diskectomy
accumulation of fluid within the peritoneal cavity that produces an enlarged abdomen Ascites
difficulty swallowing Dysphagia
bad breath Halitosis
vomiting of blood Hematemesis
backward flow of material in the digestive tract Reflux
inflammation of the gallbladder Cholecystitis
stones in the gallbladder Cholelithiasis
small, abnormal out-pouchings on the wall of the colon Diverticula
inflammation of the esophagus Esophagitis
protrusion of the cardiac portion of the stomach through the hiatus of the diaphragm and entering the thoracic cavity Hiatal hernia
surgical puncture through the abdominal wall to remove fluid Abdominocentesis
a drug that prevents or stops the vomiting reflex Antiemetic
surgical removal of a segment of the colon Colectomy
clinical lab test performed to detect blood in the feces Fecal occult blood test
endoscopic examination of the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum Esophagogastroduodenoscopy
endoscopic examination of the internal abdominal structures Laparoscopy
endoscopic examination of the colon Colonoscopy
cancer is treated by a specialized physician known as: oncologist
the inability to breathe or inhale Apnea
an abnormal slowing of the breathing rhythm Bradypnea
difficult breathing Dyspnea
blood pooling within the pleural cavity surrounding the lungs Hemothorax
abnormally rapid breathing. Hyperventilation
rapid breathing Tachypnea
the ability to breathe only when standing upright Orthopnea
collapse of the alveoli due to illness or injury, preventing air from entering; a collapsed lung Atelectasis
a viral infectious disease, common among infants and young children, producing a characteristic hoarse cough Croup
inflammation of the pharynx Pharyngitis
a common form of pneumoconiosis caused by inhalation of asbestos fibers Asbestosis
the abnormal presence of air or gas within the pleural cavity Pneumothorax
a blockage in the pulmonary circulation by a mobile blood clot Pulmonary embolism
a generalized infection of the upper respiratory tract (which consists of the nasal cavity, pharynx, and larynx) Upper respiratory infection
a device that measures oxygen levels in the blood Oximeter
a device that measures exhaled air Spirometer
a device that converts liquid medication to a mist and delivers it to the lungs Nebulizer
a small handheld device (oximeter) that provides a digital readout of oxygen levels through noninvasive physical contact with a finger Pulse oximeter
surgical puncture into the thoracic cavity to aspirate fluid Thoracocentesis
the medical term for an artificial limb Prosthesis
Created by: bismark