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Endocrine System 18

The endocrine system ch 18 tortora and derrickson

What are the three stages of the stress response or GAS (General adaptation syndrome) in order of occurrence? Fight or Flight, Resistance, Exhaustion
Increases blood calcium levels Parathormone
Increases blood glucose level Glucagon
Decreases blood calcium levels Calcitonin
Decreases blood glucose level Insulin
Initiates and maintains milk secretion by the mammary glands Prolactin
Regulates the body's biological clock Melatonin
Stimulates sex hormone production; triggers ovulation Luteinizing hormone
Augments fight or flight responses Epinephrine and norepinephrine
Regulates metabolism and resistance to stress Cortisol
Helps control water and electrolyte homeostasis Aldosterone
Suppresses release of FSH Inhibin
Stimulates growth of axillary and pubic hair Androgens
Promotes T cell maturation Thymosin
Regulates oxygen use, basal metabolic rate, cellular metabolism, and growth and development Thyroxine and triodothyronine
Stimulates protein synthesis, inhibits protein breakdown, stimulates lipolysis and retards use of glucose for ATP production Human growth hormone
Inhibits water loss through the kidneys Antidiuretic hormone
Stimulates egg and sperm formation Follicle-stimulating hormone
Enhances uterine contrations during labor;stimulates milk ejection Oxytocin
Increases skin pigmentation when present in excess Melanocyte-stimulating hormone
Stimulates the synthesis and release of T3 and T4 Thyroid-stimulating hormone
Local hormones involved in inflammation, smooth muscle contraction, blood flow, and infammation prostaglandins
Corticotrophs release which hormone? ACTH and MSH
Thyrotrophs release which hormone? TSH
Alpha cells of the pancreatic islet release Glucagon
Chief cells release PTH
Zona fasciculata cells release Glucocorticoids
Gonadotrophs release FSH and LH
Parafollicular cells of the thyroid gland release Calcitonin
Beta cells of the pancreatic islet release Insulin
Zona reticularis cells release Androgens
Ovaries release Progesterone
Chromaffin cells release Epinephrine and norepinephrine
Somatotrophs release hGH
Testes relase Testosterone
Zona glomerulosa cells release mineralocorticoids
Follicular cells fo the thyroid gland release Thyroxine and Triiodothyronine
Lactotrophs release PRL
Hyposecretion of insulin or down-regulation of insulin receptors Diabetes Mellitus
Hypersecretion of hGH before closure of epiphyseal plates Giantism
Hyposecretion of thyroid hormone that is present at birth Congenital hypothyroidism
Hypersecretion of glucocorticoids Cushing's syndrome
Hyposecretion of hGH before closure of epiphyseal plates Pituitary dwarfism
Hypersecretion of hGH after closure of epiphyseal plates Acromegaly
Hypersecretion of epinephrine and norepinephrine Pheochromocytomas
Hyposecretion of glucocorticoids and aldosterone Addison's disease
Hypersecretion of melatonin Seasonal Affective disorder
Hyposecretion of ADH Diabetes insipidus
Hyposecretion of thyroid hormone in adults Myxedema
Hyperthyroidism, an autoimmune disease Grave's disease
Lipid-soluble steroid hormones and thyroid hormones affect cell funtion by Altering gene expression
Water soluble hormones alter cell function by Activating plasma memberane receptors, which elicit production of a second messenger that activates various enzymes inside the cell
Hormonal actions have what three types of effects? Permissive, synergistic, or antagonistic
Exocrine Glands secrete Products through ducts into body cavities or onto body surfaces
Endocrine glands secrete Hormones into interstitial fluid, then hormones diffuse into the blood
abnormal enlargement of the thyroid gland Goiter
Created by: ameade0003



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