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Anatomy Final Review

Anatomy & Physiology Final Exam Flash cards/Games

QuestionAnswer
Bulky frothy stools can be seen in which disease? Celiac sprue
Ribbon-like or narrow stools is caused by? partial obstruction (eg colon cancer
Clay or tan colored stools is often seen in? bile duct obstruction/Pancreatic insufficiency
Bismuth found in pepto bismol tends to give stool a ________ color Black
False positive occult blood test can be caused by? Red meat, excessive vitamin C
Normal color of CSF is? Clear, colorless
WBC know to attack parasites and also involved in allergic reaction Eosinophils
CBC includes? RBC count, Hgb, WBC count, PLT count, Diff, Hct
Define Hct The percentage of RBCs in whole blood
A protein in the RBC that carries oxygen is known as? Hemoglobin (HgB)
Adding IV fluids to a patient will increase or decrease the Hct decreasea dehydrated patient will have Increased or decreased hct?
A disease where there is wearing out of the joints is known as? Osteoarthritis
Risk factors for osteoarthritis are? Obesity, Aging, Injury, Repetative motion
An arthritis that is autoimmune in nature is known as? Rheumatoid arthritis
Metabolic disorder characterized by uric acid accumulation in the joints Gout
How many cervical vertabrae are there? 7
exaggerated hump back in the thoracic spine is known as? Kyphosis
Exaggerated swayback in the lumber vertabrae is known as? Lordosis
abnormal sideways curve of the spine is known as? scoliosis
An incomplete facture is known as? greenstick
A fracture that remains under the skin (no breakage) is known as? Simple or closed fracture
A spongy bone containing a lot of fatty tissue is known as? Yellow marrow
The joint most commonly affected in gout is the? Big toe
The outer covering of the bones is known as? Periosteum
The periosteum contains? Blood vessels, nerves, lymph vesselsName the different components of the osteon
a mature bone cell is called? Osteocyte
tough, whitish bands that connect from bone to bone are callled? Ligaments
cord-like structures that attach muscle to bone are called? Tendons
Which Herpes type most often affect the oral region? Herpes simplex type I
Which herpes type most often affects the genitals? Herpes Simplex type II
A disease caused by the reactivation of chicken pox is known as? Shingles (Herpes Zoster)
WBC that respond to severe or chronic infection Monocytes
Overstreching or tear in a tendon or muscle is known as? Strain
11 of 18 tender points on physical exam is characteristic of? Fibromyalgia
The only muscle with intercalated disks is the? Cardiac muscle
Smooth muscle is found around the.....? Blood vessels, Respiratory tract, GI tract
A disorder where muscles are replaced by a fibrous fatty tissue is known as? Muscular Dystrophy
What are the 3 main layers of the skin? Epidermis, Dermis, subcutaneous (hypodermis
Bull's eye rash is characteristic of which pathology(disease)? Lyme
The virus that causes warts (verruca) is known as? Human papilloma virus
Which layer of the skin lacks blood supply? Epidermis
Cellulitis is usually caused by? Staph
Local itchiness and vesicles caused by a tiny mite that forms burrows or tunnels in the skin causes a disease known as? Scabies
Chicken pox virus is known as? Varicella
Blushing is caused by? Vasodilation
The sweat glands, sebaceous glands, hair follicles are located in: Dermis
The thickest layer of the skin is the: Dermis
Alopecia is defined as? Hair loss
Nerve endings are located in which layer of the skin Dermis
What type of gland is associated with each hair follicle? sebaceous gland
Another name for muscle cell is? Muscle fiber
What muscle types are striated? Skeletal and Cardiac
Risk factors for Tendinitis/Tendinosis include? Age, Gender, Skeletal anatomy, Occupation
Common inflammatory injury of lower leg extensor muscles and surrounding tissues related to running is known as? Shin splits
A chronic pain syndrome associated with depression and Anxiety: Fibromyalgia
The chief muscle causing movement is known as? Primary mover or agonist
The muscles causing movement in opposite direction of agonist is known as? Antagonist
Dome shaped muscle that separates abdominal cavity from thoracic cavity is known as? Diaphragm
Each muscle fiber is composed of several smaller fibers called? myofibrils
functional contractile units of each fiber is called? Sarcomere
Lock Jaw is caused by a bacteria called? Clostridium tetani
Tetanus may be prevented by a booster shot usually given how frequent? Every 10 years
Enlarging diameter of blood vessel is called? Vasodilation
Decreasing diameter of blood vessels is called? Vasoconstriction
donut shaped smooth muscles act as doorways to let material in and out are called? sphincters
Glycogen is stored in muscles and when needed it can be converted to: Glucose
Examples of NSAIDs include: Ibuprofen/Naproxen
both ends of long bones are called? Epiphysis
region running between two epiphyses (Shaft of long bones) are known as? Diaphysis
bending a joint and decreasing angle between involved bones is known as? Flexion
straightening a joint is a movement called? Extension
Moving away from body’s midline is known as? Abduction
when the soft central portion of intervertebral disk is forced through outer covering of diskcompressing on nearby nerves describes? Herniated Disk
Treatment of osteoarthritis includes: rest, analgesics, anti-inflammatory medications, steroid injections, joint replacement
infection of a joint is known as? Septic arthritis
inflammation of a bursa is known as? Bursitis
Diagnostic test for osteoporosis include? X-ray, bone densitometry
Liquid portion of blood is known as? Plasma
Thrombocytes are also known as? PLT
Polycythemia is defined as? higher than normal amounts of RBCs
Normal range of RBC is: 4 - 6 million
Normal number of WBCs is: 4,000 - 11,000
the normal range of platelets is: 150,000 - 500,000
Anemia or decreased number of RBCs can be caused by: blood loss, dietary insufficiency (iron, folic acid, certain vitamins)
Increased Hgb may be caused by: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, high altitude
Increased WBCs may be caused by: infection, malignancy/leukemia
WBC type that fights viral infections? Lymphocytes
a coagulation test that uses the intrinsic pathway is known as? PTT
Measurement of kidney’s ability to eliminate urea (waste product) from blood is known as? BUN
Increased BUN suggests: Renal impairment, diabetes
S/S of decreased potassium include: muscle weakness
Increased sodium may be caused by: dehydration
Orange urine may be caused by: concentrated urine, decreased fluid intake, drugs
Red urine is caused by: blood/hemoglobin
WBC that releases histamine? Basophils
Cartilage tissue found at the epiphysis of long bones that causes longitudinal growth (increases height) Growth plates
The process of bone formation in know as? ossification
decreasing bone density (more holes in spongy bone) is called? osteoporosis
Bone cells that cause bone growth are known as? Osteoblasts
Bone cells that tear down bone are known as? Osteoclast
An increase in which electrolyte is know to causes constipation, renal stones, bone pain, and mental status changes? Calcium
Turbidity in urine may indicate? Pus, bacteria in the urine
Examples of conditions where the ketones are elevated? Anorexia, starvation/fasting, diabetes
The motor system of the brain carries orders to: all a three types of muscles (cardiac, heart, smooth) and glands
Autonomic system controls: smooth muscle, cardiac, (involuntary)
Somatic nervous system controls: skeletal muscles, and voluntary function
autonomic NS is divided into: parasympathetic and sympathetic
Parasympathetic deals with: resting, digesting (normal body fumctioning)
sympathetic is the bodys___________ fight or flight response, (bodys alert system)
Neuroglia are defined as: specialized nervous tissue cells that allow the NS functions (support NS)
Astrocytes are: metabolic and structural support cells that hold the neurons and blood vessels close together.
microglia are: cells that attack microbes and remove debris
Oligodendrocytes make a: lipid insulation called myelin.
Neurons (nerve cells) are defined as: nerve cells that control functions of the nervous system.
Parts of a neuron include: dendrites, axon terminal, body, myelin
This part of the neuron recieves information. dendrites
This part of the neuron carries info away axon
synapse is the : space between the axon terminal and receiving cell
An excitable cell carries___________ a small electrical charge when stimulated
Schwann cells form myelin in the: PNS (peripheral nervous system)
the node of ranvier is the: tiny bare spots between adjacent glial cells.
tiny sacs in the terminal of the axon that release chemicals are called: vesicles
Neurotransmitters are used to: send the signal from the neuron across the synapse to the next cell in line.
Created by: bismark