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Exam 2 - Micro

Hard terms from Chapters 5,6,7 & 20 that need to be reviewed

photoautotroph An organism that uses light as its energy source and carbon dioxide (CO2) as its carbon source.
photoheterotroph An organism that uses light as its energy source and an organic carbon source.
chemoautotroph An organism that uses an inorganic chemical as an energy source and CO2 as a carbon source.
chemoheterotroph An organism that uses organic molecules as a source of carbon and energy.
Inorganic molecules include: carbon dioxide, oxygen, minerals, lead, and water (does not contain hydrogen and carbon together)
Organic molecules include: most carbon containing compounds, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen; carbs, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids
Glycolysis makes: 2 ATP, 2 NADH, 0 FADH2, 2 ATP made by substrate-level phosphorylation, 6 ATP made from NADH and 0 ATP made from FADH through oxidative phosphorylation
Acetyl COA Step makes: 0 ATP, 2 NADH, 0 ATP made by substrate-level phosphorylation, 6 ATP made from NADH through oxidative phosphorylation
Kreb Cycle makes: 2 ATP, 6 NADH, 2 FADH2, 2 ATP made by substrate-level phosphorylation, 18 ATP from NADH and 4 ATP from FADH made from NADH through oxidative phosphorylation
Psychrophiles cold-loving bacteria; optimum temp from -5 to 15C
Mesophiles grow best at moderate temperatures; optimum temp from 25C to 45C
Thermophiles heat-loving bacteria; optimum temp 45C to 70C
Hypothermophiles love extreme-heat; optimum temp from 70C to 110C
Facultative Halophiles are able to grow in high salt environments and tolerate high osmotic pressure
Antisepsis a method for disinfection of the skin or mucous membranes
Dergeming the mechanical removal, rather than the killing, of most microbes in a limited area Ex: used to sanitize skin before an injections
sanitization treatment is intended to lower microbial counts on eating and drinking utensils to safe public health levels; may be done w/ high-temp washing or dipping into a chemical disinfectant
Moist heat sterilization kills microorganisms by coagulating their proteins (denaturation); reliable sterilization w/ moist heat requires temp above boiling point
Autoclaving a chamber is filled w/ hot steam, 121 C, and a lot of pressure; kills endospores in 15 minutes; used to sterilize lab and hospital equipment; cannot be used for heat sensitive substances
pasteurization aims to achieve a reduction in the number of viable organisms, so they are unlikely to cause disease; protein denaturation; does NOT kill endospores
dry heat sterilization kills by oxidation effects; includes direct flaming, incineration, and hot air sterilization (all of them sterilize)
filtration used to sterilize sensitive materials like vaccines, enzymes, antibiotics, and culture media
Biguanides primarily affects bacterial cell membranes, especially against gram(+) bacteria; can beef with enveloped viruses
Chlorohexidine example of biguanides; frequently used for microbial control on skin and mucous membranes; combined w/ detergents or alcohol, the stuff is often used for surgical hand scrubs and preoperative skin preparation on patients
Halogens for sure iodine and chlorine are effective alone or combined w/ other elements; most effective against vegetative bacterial and fungal cells, fungal spores, some bacterial endospores, protozoan cysts, and many viruses
Iodine mainly used for skin disinfection and wound treatment; combines w/ amino acid tyrosine in proteins and denatures proteins; includes betadine and iodine which are a skin antiseptic used in surgery, injections, and burn wounds;Ex of halogens
chlorine is a strong oxidizing agent that prevents much of the cellular enzyme system from functioning; ex of halogens
Hypochlorous acid forms when chlorine is added to water; is the most effective form bc it is neutral in electrical charge and diffuses rapidly as water through the cell wall; is easily inactivated organic materials; used in water, pools, & sewage;
alcohols kill bacteria & fungi, not endospores & nonenveloped viruses; usually denature protein, disrupts membranes & dissolve lipids; not good for open wounds bc proteins coagulate (bacteria grow under layer); act quickly & evaporate, leaves no resideue
Aldehydes among the most effective antimicrobials; inactivate proteins by forming covalent crosslinks w/ functional groups → thereby inactivating nucleic acids and denaturing proteins
Formaldehyde (ex of aldehydes) excellent disinfectant; used to preserve biological specimens and inactivate bacteria and viruses in vaccines; Irritates mucous membranes and has strong odor & suspected carcinogens
Glutaraldehyde (ex of aldehydes) relative of formaldehyde that is less irritant and more effective than formaldehyde; is used to disinfect hospital instruments; One of the few chemical disinfectants that is a sterilizing agent; used to disinfect hospital instruments; kills spores
gaseous chemosterilants frequently used as substitutes for physical sterilization processes; application requires a closed chamber similar to a steam autoclave; Denatures proteins and DNA, by replacing functional groups w/ alkyl groups therevery killing everything they contact
Ethylene oxide (ex of gaseous chemosterilants) useful due to its penetrating power; kills all microbes & endospores (requires exposure of 4 to 18 hours; sterilizes mattresses, pillows, artificial heart valves, catheters, dried powdered foods; hazardous bc explosive, poisonous, maybe carcinogenic
Peroxygens kills microbes by oxidizing their enzymes, this preventing metabolism; High level disinfectant and antiseptic effective against anaerobic organisms contaminating deep wounds; Works by releasing hydroxyl radical which kill microbes
Ozone (ex of peroxygens) formed when O2 is subjected to electrical discharge; Used along with chlorine to disinfect water; helps neutralize unpleasant tastes and odors; More effective killing agent than chlorine, but less stable and more expensive
Hydrogen peroxide (ex of peroxygens) used to disinfect and sterilize surfaces of inanimate objects (Ex: contact lenses) Not good for open wounds bc its quickly broken down by catalase present in human cells; Sporicidal at high temps; food processors use hot hydrogen peroxide to sterilize
Aminoglycosides are bactericidal; bind to 30S ribosomal unit and blocks protein synthesis → causes misreading of mRNA, creating nonsense peptides Used mainly for gram(-) infections toxic to humans, cause kidney/hearing problems so used as reserve antibiotic
Tetracyclines interfere w/ attachment of tRNA carrying amino acids to the ribosome at the 30S portion of the 70S ribosome prevents addition of amino acids to polypeptide chain; use is confined to adults bc tetracyclines affect bone development & staining of teeth
Chloramphenicol inhibits the formation of peptide bonds in the growing polypeptide chain by reacting w/ 50S portion of 70S prokaryotic ribosomes (translation); suppress bone marrow activity which results in a fatal condition aka aplastic anemia
Macrolides inhibition of protein synthesis by binding to 50S ribosomal subunit & inhibits peptidyl transferase activity or translocation of the growing peptide; Most widely used macrolides are erythromycin and clarithromycin; Relatively non-toxic antibiotic
sulfa drugs aka sulfonamides; drugs are bacteriostatic; Folic acid is a coenzyme needed for synthesis of proteins, DNA, and RNA. Sulfa drugs are similar to PABA → allowing them to competitively bind to PABA which blocks folic acid production
Polymyxin B is a bactericidal antibiotic effective against gram(-) bacteria; it acts by binding to the outer membrane of the cell wall; Is primarily used in topical treatment of superficial infections
Quinolones broad-spectrum agent that inhibits activity of the bacterial DNA gyrase, preventing the normal functioning of DNA; Humans possess DNA gyrase, but it is structurally distinct from the bacterial enzyme and remains unaffected by the activity quinolones
Created by: microstudent
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